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Also called Krakatau, Krakatoa is located along an area in the Pacific known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. It is an active volcano historically recognized to have erupted in huge proportions.
See the fact file below for more information on the Krakatoa or alternatively, you can download our 24-page Krakatoa worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- Krakatoa lies along the Indian-Australian and Eurasian tectonic plates, a zone of high volcanic and seismic activity. The volcanic activity is due to subduction of the Indo-Australian tectonic plate as it moves northward toward mainland Asia.
- The island is about 3 miles wide and 5.5 miles long (5 by 9 kilometers).
- Before 1883, it had three linked volcanic peaks: Perboewatan, the most active; Danan; and the largest, Rakata.
- Krakatoa and the two nearby islands, Lang and Verlatan, are known remnants of a previous large eruption that left an undersea caldera between them.
- Being an active volcano, it was expected that one day, Krakatoa would erupt. As early as the 1600s, it showcased its power. 200 years later, an impending catastrophe showed signs.
- In May 1883, the captain of a German warship reported seeing clouds of ash above Krakatoa. He estimated them to be more than 6 miles (9.6 km) high.
- For the next two months, commercial vessels and chartered sightseeing boats frequented the area to observe the volcanic clouds constantly spewing out, not expecting any kind of danger.
- On May 20, 1883, one of the cones became active and ash-laden clouds reached a height of 6 miles (10 km).
- By the end of May the activity had died down. It resumed on June 19 and became paroxysmal by August 26.
- At 12:53pm, the initial blast of the eruption sent a cloud of gas and debris an estimated 15 miles (24 km) into the air above Perboewatan.
- The initial explosion ruptured the magma chamber and allowed seawater to contact the hot lava. The result is known as a phreatomagmatic event.
- The eruption had a rating of 6 on the Volcanic Explosion Index and is estimated to have had the explosive force of 200 megatons of TNT.
- The discharge of Krakatoa threw nearly 5 cubic miles (21 cubic km) of rock fragments into the air, and large quantities of ash fell over an area of some 300,000 square miles (800,000 square km).
- At 10:00 AM on August 27, tremendous explosions were heard 2,200 miles (3,500 km) away in Australia and propelled ash 50 miles (80 km) high.
- After the explosion, only a small islet remained. 200 feet (60 metres) of ash and pumice fragments accumulated on Verlaten and Lang islands and on the remaining southern part of Rakata.
- After the explosions, a wall of water, nearly 120 feet tall, was created by the volcano’s collapse into the sea. It completely overwhelmed small nearby islands.
- 165 coastal villages were destroyed by the waves. The steamship Berouw was carried nearly a mile inland on Sumatra killing all crew members.
- Nearby, the Loudon ship’s captain Lindemann succeeded in turning its bow to face the wave. It was able to ride over the crest. However, the island where it anchored was levelled.
- The greatest wave, which reached a height of 120 feet (37 metres) and took some 36,000 lives in nearby coastal towns of Java and Sumatra, occurred just after the explosions.
- Light did not return in the immediate vicinity for three days. Ash fell as far away as 3,775 miles (6,076 km) landing on ships to the northwest.
- All life on the Krakatoa island group was buried under a thick layer of sterile ash, and plant and animal life did not begin to reestablish itself for five years.
- Within 13 days, a layer of sulfur dioxide and other gases began to filter the amount of sunlight able to reach through the ash. The atmospheric effects created weird sunsets all over Europe and the United States.
THE CHILD OF KRAKATOA
- 44 years after the massive eruption, Javanese fishermen saw a column of steam and debris spewing from the collapsed caldera – Krakatoa awakened.
- Within weeks, the rim of a new cone appeared above sea level. One year later, it grew into a small island, which was named Anak Krakatoa, or Child of Krakatoa.
- Anak Krakatoa has grown at an average rate of 6.8 m (22 ft) per year since the 1950s.
- It has been active after its formation. Major threats caused huge alarms in 1994, 2008, 2009, 2014, and lately around July 2018. Anak Krakatoa is not done yet, so Indonesians are kept vigilant on any upcoming eruption.
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Krakatoa across 24 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Krakatoa worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Krakatoa, also called Krakatau, which is located along an area in the Pacific known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. It is an active volcano historically recognized to have erupted in huge proportions.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- When It Happened
- Where It Happened
- How it Happens
- It Happens Everywhere!
- Pick and Match
- Shaken Earth
- The Aftermath
- Signs of an Eruption
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