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Pergamon was an opulent ancient Greek city located close to the Aegean Sea in Turkey’s Aegean region. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon and was one of the major cultural centres of Greece. It became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014.
See the fact file below for more information on the Pergamon or alternatively, you can download our 22-page World Heritage Sites: Pergamon worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
History of Pergamon
- According to archaeological finds, settlement of Pergamon can be traced back to as early as the 8th century BC.
- Although bronze age tools have been found in areas around Pergamon, no concrete evidence exists that people inhabited the area during the Bronze age.
- Literary records indicate that the earliest mention of Pergamon was by a Greek soldier and writer named Xenophon, when he described the military command – the march of the Ten Thousand – coming to an end at Pergamon in 400 BC.
- When Alexander the Great died in 323 BC, his generals divided his conquered territory, and this resulted in power struggles and disagreements about who would get what territory.
- In 281 BC, Pergamon was ruled by Philetaerus (pictured on the coin on the right), who founded the Attalid dynasty; his family ruled Pergamon for several decades.
- For the next hundred years or so, Pergamon was ruled by different people: Eumenes, Attalus I, Eumenes II, and so forth.
- During the rule of Attalus III, Peramon was given to the Roman republic so that it could be transformed into the Roman province of Asia and stand as capital.
- Many people in Pergamon didn’t like this, so they revolted; this unruliness cost Pergamon its status as capital, and it went to a nearby city by the name of Ephesus.
- While under the rule of Hadrian, Pergamon was given the title of metropolis, and thus was given building grants to construct temples, a stadium, a theatre, amphitheatre, and lavish spas.
Archaeology, Structures, and Housing at Pergamon
- The earliest and most thorough description of Pergamon comes from Thomas Smith in 1668 who wrote a detailed description of the area.
- At the beginning of the 19th century, Charles Robert Cockerell (pictured to the right) gave a detailed account of the area, while Otto Magnus von Stackelberg sketched his surroundings.
- A proper volume of plans, descriptions, and views of the city and its ruins were drawn up by Charles Texier, a French archaeologist, historian, and architect.
- Throughout the late 19th century, the German engineer Carl Humann visited Pergamon, planned topological studies, organized archaeological expeditions, and transported fragments of artifacts to Germany (known back then as the Ottoman Empire) for analysis.
- Humann’s work led to the opening of the Pergamon Museum in the Ottoman Empire in 1907.
- Excavations of the site were interrupted by the First World War, but resumed in 1927 under Theodor Wiegand until 1939. Resuming after the Second World War, excavations continued.
- After the First World War, all excavations were taken to the Bergama Museum in Turkey, instead of to the Pergamon Museum in Germany.
- A small portion of artifacts were also taken to the Istanbul Archaeological Museum after it opened in 1891.
Fun Facts About Pergamon
- Pergamon really only became important during the Hellenistic Age (323-30 BC).
- The fortress and palace of the attalid dynasty was situated on the peak of the hill, and the town took up the lower slopes.
- Pergamon is one of the best examples of meticulous city planning during the Hellenistic Age.
- The sit of Pergamon provided inspiration for many fine Hellenistic and Roman works of art, including the Great Altar, which is now in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin (pictured below).
- Som major sites at Pergamon are the Great Altar, Theatre, Temple of Dionysus, Temple of Athena, the Library, Trajaneum, Gymnasium, the Sanctuary of Hera, Sanctuary of Demeter, Sanctuary of Asclepius, and the Serapis Temple.
World Heritage Sites: Pergamon Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Pergamon across 22 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use World Heritage Sites: Pergamon worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Pergamon which was an opulent ancient Greek city located close to the Aegean Sea in Turkey’s Aegean region. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon and was one of the major cultural centres of Greece. It became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Pergamon Facts.
- Map Puzzle.
- Mythological Links.
- Biography of Charles Cockerell.
- The Hellenistic Age.
- Opinion Paragraph.
- Pergamon Wordsearch.
- Answer to the Altar.
- Our Five Senses.
- Pergamon Acrostic.
- Pergamon Crossword.
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Link will appear as Pergamon Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, July 12, 2018
Use With Any Curriculum
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