- 1846 – The saxophone is patented. Belgian musician Adolphe Sax developed the woodwind instrument typically made of brass, which in recent decades has heavily influenced the sound of the jazz, military band, rock, and pop musical genres.
- 1862 – During the American Civil War, the siege of the Confederate city of Vicksburg began as Admiral David Farragut succeeded in taking a fleet past the Mississippi River stronghold. The siege continued over a year.
- 1894 – Labor Day is made an official US holiday.
- 1914 – Archduke Francis Ferdinand, Crown Prince of Austria and his wife were assassinated at Sarajevo, touching off a conflict between the Austro-Hungarian government and Serbia that escalated into World War I.
- 1919 – World War I is ended with the signing of The Treaty of Versailles.
- 1939 – The world’s first scheduled transatlantic flight takes off. The Boeing 314 Clipper flying boat was operated by Pan Am. It took about 24 hours to reach Marseille, France. The scheduled service was soon discontinued again because of the outbreak of World War II.
- 1950 – North Korean troops capture Seoul.
- 1967 – Israel annexes East Jerusalem. From Israel’s point of view, the annexation effected the reunification of its capital city. However, the international community declared it illegal and views East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel.
- 1969 – A police raid of a gay tavern sparks a series of violent clashes. The Stonewall Riots in New York City marked the beginning of the gay rights movement in the United States. The Christopher Street Day, a yearly observance for Gay Pride in some European countries, is named after the bar’s location.
- 2004 – The interim government of Iraq takes over as the official governing body.
- 1491 – Henry VIII (King of England)
- 1577 – Flemish painter and diplomat Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) was born in Siegen, Westphalia, Germany
- 1712 – Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was born in Geneva, Switzerland
- 1906 – German-American physicist Maria Goeppert Mayer (1906-1972) was born in Kattowitz, Germany
- 1926 – Mel Brooks (American actor, director, producer, writer)
- 1940 – Muhammad Yunus (Bangladeshi economist, Nobel Prize laureate)
- 1946 – Gilda Radner (Actress)
- 1948 – Kathy Bates (Actress)
- 1960 – John Elway (Football Player)
- 1966 – John Cusak (Actor)
- 1991 – Kevin De Bruyne
- 1836 – James Madison (American politician, 4th President of the United States)
- 1962 – Mickey Cochrane (American baseball player, manager)
- 1975 – Rod Serling (American screenwriter, producer, created The Twilight Zone)
- 1981 – Terry Fox (Canadian athlete, activist)
- 2001 – Mortimer J. Adler (American philosopher, author)