- 1825 – The Erie Canal opens creating a passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie
- 1863 – The Football Association is Formed. The world’s oldest governing football body was created at the Freemasons’ Tavern in London. The foundation was instrumental in creating and formalizing rules of the game. Before this, every area and organization playing football (soccer) made their own rules.
- 1881 – The famous Gunfight at the O.K. Corral takes place at Tombstone, Arizona.
- 1947 – The Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir Joins India. Hari Singh, the last ruler of the princely state, signed the Instrument of Accession to join the Dominion of India, in return for protection from the Indian military.
- 1951 – Winston Churchill became Britain’s prime minister for a second time, following his Conservative Party’s narrow victory in general elections. In his first term from 1940-45 he had guided Britain through its struggle against Nazi Germany.
- 1955 – Ngo Dinh Diem proclaimed South Vietnam a republic and declared himself president.
- 1977 – The last known natural case of the disease smallpox occurs. It has since been considered eradicated.
- 1984 – First infant to receive an organ from another species. Born on October 14, 1984, with a rare congenital heart defect, Baby Fae received a heart from a baboon. The surgery was performed by Dr. Leonard L. Bailey at Loma Linda University Medical Center in California. While the operation was successful, Baby Fae’s body rejected the heart, and she died a few weeks later.
- 1984 – ‘The Terminator’ movie is released in theaters.
- 2000 – Sony’s popular game console, PlayStation 2, was released.
- 2001 – Patriot Act comes into effect in the US. Signed into law by President George W. Bush as a result of the September 11, 2001, attacks, the act is formally known as Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. The act gave security agencies more power to deal with terrorists and terrorist activities and made it easier for them to monitor and investigate people suspected of aiding and abetting acts of terrorism. It has been criticized for its detrimental effect on civil liberties.
- 1916 – François Mitterrand (French politician, 21st President of France)
- 1947 – Hillary Rodham Clinton (former First Lady and Senator)
- 1946 – Pat Sajak (‘Wheel of Fortune’ Host)
- 1959 – Evo Morales (Bolivian politician, 80th President of Bolivia)
- 1967 – Keith Urban (Country singer)
- 1977 – John Heder (Actor – Napolean Dynamite)
- 1981 – Guy Sebastian (Australian singer-songwriter, producer)
- 1984 – Sasha Cohen (Figure Skater)
- 899 – Alfred the Great (English king)