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Prior to 1920, American women did not have the right to vote. The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution grants that right. It was ratified on August 18, 1920, but not without decades of protests.
See the fact file below for more information on the 19th Amendment or alternatively, you can download our 22-page 19th Amendment worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
EARLY EFFORTS FOR WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE
- Women were granted the right to vote in some of the early colonies in the United States.
- That right was taken away when all states rescinded women’s suffrage rights after 1776.
- Women played an important role in various movements prior to the Civil War and there had been organizations dedicated to forwarding women’s voting rights in the 1800s, but it was not until the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention in New York when the women’s suffrage movement marked its beginning on a national level.
THE 1848 SENECA FALLS CONVENTION
- The convention was organised by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.
- It was attended by 300 people, which were mostly women.
- The convention was intended as a forum to discuss the rights of women in the fields of education, employment, and politics.
- At the end of the convention, the Declaration of Sentiments was drafted.
DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS
- The Declaration of Sentiments was patterned after the Declaration of Independence.
- It was a document calling for gender equality.
- It also states that women should be granted the right to vote.
- A total of 68 women and 32 men signed the document.
- The declaration received a lot of criticism from the press, which led to some of the delegates who signed it to back out.
- Stanton and Mott continued to build the movement.
- Susan B. Anthony and more activists joined the movement.
- Women redirected their efforts from the women’s suffrage movement during the American Civil War.
- The advocacy of black men’s voting rights largely took the focus from women’s voting rights.
WOMEN’S RIGHTS ASSOCIATIONS
- In 1869, two suffrage organizations were founded: the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) founded by Stanton and Anthony and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) founded by Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell.
- Those two organizations were divided in their advocacies.
- The NWSA was focused on achieving an amendment to the federal constitution that would grant voting rights to women while the AWSA believed in the power of individual state constitutions.
- The NWSA had gathered enough momentum and support by 1878 and they lobbied the U.S. Congress for an amendment to the constitution.
- The issue was debated among committees in the Senate and the House of Representatives.
- The amendment proposal reached the Senate in 1886, but it was still rejected.
- NWSA and AWSA combined their efforts in 1890 and formed the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA).
- The organization began lobbying for women’s suffrage state by state.
- The first states to adopt the amendment were Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and Idaho.
- Carrie Chapman Catt became the head of NAWSA in 1900.
- Stanton and Anthony died in 1902 and 1906, respectively.
- Catt was successful in pushing for women’s suffrage state by state.
- Between 1910 and 1918, the following states granted women the right to vote: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Washington, California, New York, Oregon, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, Oklahoma, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE
- White American women advocated for right to elective franchise.
- Black American women also stood for that right, but as a way to forward civil rights and racial equality as well.
- Sojourner Truth and Mary Church Terrell were two of the notable African-American suffragists.
CONTINUING PROTESTS AND PRESIDENT WILSON’S SUPPORT
- In 1913, suffragists gathered to protest during the inauguration of President Woodrow Wilson.
- As a women’s suffrage campaign, the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CUWS) (later known as the National Woman’s Party) was founded by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns in 1913.
- The organization was more aggressive and combative in their protests than previous associations, which at times resulted in arrests and imprisonment.
- President Wilson stated his support for women’s suffrage in 1918 and acknowledged women’s roles in the World War I efforts. The change from Wilson’s opposition to support was largely because of Catt’s influence.
- Despite Woodrow’s support, the proposal still failed to pass in the Senate.
PASSED AND RATIFIED
- The Susan Anthony Amendment, which is an amendment granting women’s right to vote as proposed by U.S. Representative James R. Mann, was passed in the House of Representatives on May 21, 1919.
- The 19th Amendment was passed in the Senate on June 4, 1919 by two votes over its required majority.
- The ratification cycle then began.
- Wisconsin, Michigan, and Illinois were the first to ratify the amendment, which were then followed by New York, Ohio, and Kansas.
- By March, 1920, 35 states had approved the amendment.
- States in the south were strongly against the amendment.
- Full ratification was achieved with the vote from U.S. Representative of Tennessee Harry T. Burn.
- The 19th Amendment was certified by Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby on August 26, 1920.
- Over 8 million women went to vote in the elections on November 2, 1920.
- All states ratified the 19th Amendment by March 22, 1984, with Mississippi as the last state to ratify the amendment.
19th Amendment Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about 19th Amendment across 22 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use 19th Amendment worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which grants American women the right to vote. It was ratified on August 18, 1920, but not without decades of protests.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- 19th Amendment Facts
- The Journey to Ratification
- Important Women
- Make It True
- Read and Comprehend
- Immediate Effects
- Photo Analysis
- Cartoon Analysis
- Anti-Suffrage Analysis
- Never Would Have Happened
- Importance Interview
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Link will appear as 19th Amendment Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, July 30, 2019
Use With Any Curriculum
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