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From 3150 B.C. to 30 B.C., Ancient Egypt was one of the greatest and most powerful civilizations in the world. Scholars often divide the golden history of ancient Egypt into three kingdoms namely the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom.
See the fact file below for more information on the Ancient Egypt or alternatively, you can download our 28-page Ancient Egypt worksheet pack to utilize within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
- Like other ancient civilizations, Egypt was established along a rich body of water. The Nile River is the longest river in the world. It is located in northeast Africa and flows through several countries until it connects with the Mediterranean Sea.
- During the ancient times, Egypt was divided into two regions – Upper and Lower Egypt – in relation to the flow of the Nile River. The ancient Egyptians devised a seasonal calendar based on the river as well. Akhet refers to the flooding season, Peret for the growing season, and Shemu for the season of harvest.
- Since Egypt is mostly surrounded by desert, it is the Nile River that provides people with fertile land, building materials, and a transportation route.
- The fertile soil along the Nile River made growing crops like papyrus, wheat, and flax easy.
- Ancient Egyptians called the Nile “Aur”, which means ‘black’ from the rich black soil produced every flooding season.
- The mud from the riverbanks was also used by ancient Egyptians to make sun-dried bricks. Moreover, they quarried limestone from the hills near the river.
- Being one of the oldest and longest-surviving civilizations in the history of the world, ancient Egypt is outlined by dynasties and kingdoms.
- For over three thousand years, ancient Egypt was ruled by over 30 dynasties from the Ptolemaic Dynasty set by the Greeks until the famous pharaohs who built some of Egypt’s most iconic architecture.
- Scholars also divide the history of ancient Egypt into kingdoms or periods. The Old Kingdom lasted for 400 years from c.2575 B.C. to c.2130 B.C. and was ruled by the Third until the Sixth Dynasty. It was during this kingdom that a strong centralized government was established.
- The Third Dynasty was founded by pharaoh Djoser who divided the land into nomaes (states) headed by a nomarch (governor). It was under Djoser that the pyramid of Giza was built. The Great Sphinx was constructed during the Fourth Dynasty.
- In c.1938 B.C., the Middle Kingdom emerged when the pharaoh succeeded in reuniting the states into one central government. When Mentuhotep became king of southern Egypt, he invaded the north, which eventually united Egypt into one. It is sometimes called the Period of Reunification.
- The New Kingdom, also known as the golden age of ancient Egypt, emerged from c.1539 B.C. and lasted until c.1075 B.C.
- It was during the New Kingdom when famous pharaohs including Ramses II, Thutmose III, Hatshepsut, Tutankhamun, and Akhenaten ruled. These pharaohs launched expeditions and invasions into lands including Kush, Nubia, modern-day Israel, Lebanon, and Syria. Accompanying land expansion was gaining wealth and trade goods from many parts of the ancient world.
- As a result, numerous and massive temples for the gods were built including the Temple of Luxor, Temple of Karnak, and Temple of Hatshepsut.
PEOPLE AND CULTURE
- The supreme ruler of ancient Egypt was called a pharaoh. Pharaohs were like kings and emperors. They were considered descendants of gods who ruled both political and religious affairs in the kingdom. The Queen of Egypt, or the Great Royal Wife, also shared great power and could rule in the absence of the pharaoh.
- Akhenaten was known for abandoning the worship of many gods in favor of one god, the sun god named Aten. He was the husband of Nefertiti and father of the famous pharaoh King Tut.
- At the age of 9, Tutankhamun, simply known as King Tut, became the pharaoh of Egypt. He is most famous for his intact tomb filled with treasures, which was discovered in 1922. Strong advisors helped the kingdom flourish during his rule. He restored Egypt to polytheism.
- Also known as the ‘Lady Pharaoh’, Hatshepsut gained unprecedented power as a woman ruler. She married her half-brother Thutmose II, who ruled as pharaoh. When he died, the throne passed to his son from another wife. Since he was just a baby, Hatshepsut acted as regent until she gained the throne in her own right seven years later.
- Ramses II or the Great Ramses ruled Egypt for 67 years and was known to have built more monuments and statues than any other pharaoh.
- Cleopatra was another powerful woman who ruled Egypt during its last days. She was known in history for making alliances with the Romans, including Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony.
- Pharaohs were the only people in ancient Egypt allowed to wear a headdress with the goddess cobra on it.
- Under the leadership of the pharaoh was a vizier or Chief Overseer of the Land, like Imhotep who was credited for being the architect of the first pyramid and was made into a god.
- Under the vizier were nomarchs or governors who were in charge of the nome or states. They were often appointed by the pharaohs and sometimes placed through inheritance of the position.
- In order to support the government, citizens paid taxes.
- One of the main cultural features of ancient Egypt was their belief in life after death. Through the process of mummification, they prolonged the existence of the dead’s physical body through embalming. As part of preserving the body, a kind of crystal substance called natron was rubbed inside and on the body. Vital organs are removed except the heart, while the body was wrapped in linen and placed in a stone tomb called a sarcophagus.
- Among the most famous and well-preserved mummies were King Tut and Ramses II, which were entombed in the Valley of Kings.
- In relation to the afterlife, ancient Egyptians collected written spells in the Book of the Dead. It consists of over 190 chapters written in hieroglyphics on papyrus sheets.
- Ancient Egyptians practiced polytheism meaning they had multiple gods and goddesses representing natural elements of the world including the sun (Ra), underworld (Osiris), and sky (Horus).
- In ancient Egypt, both men and women wore makeup. They usually decorated their eyes with kohl or black paint and covered their skin with oils.
- Ancient Egyptians invented their own writing system called hieroglyphics. They were very good at keeping records in order to maintain control of the empire.
- Most text and religious records were written on papyrus sheets made from fibres of a plant of the same name. They even traded this invention with the ancient Greeks.
- Ship building was an industry of communities near the Nile River. They began building small boats made of papyrus reeds. Later on, they built large ships out of cedar wood from Lebanon. Moreover, wealthy Egyptians built funeral boats because they believed that the dead needed a boat for the journey into the afterlife.
- Ancient Egyptians are probably most famous for their pyramids built with deep understanding of mathematics, architecture, and engineering.
Ancient Egypt Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle includes everything you need to know about Ancient Egypt across 28 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Ancient Egypt worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Ancient Egypt (from 3150 B.C. to 30 B.C) which was one of the greatest and most powerful civilizations in the world. Scholars often divide the golden history of ancient Egypt into three kingdoms namely the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Ancient Egypt Facts
- The Great House
- Immortality in Ancient Egypt
- Crack the Code
- Social Classes
- Egyptian Clothing
- Deities of Egypt
- The River Nile
- Chronological Dynasties
- Ancient Egyptian Terms
- Secrets of the Afterlife
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Link will appear as Ancient Egypt Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, October 17, 2018
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.