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The Battles of Corregidor during WWII were two conflicts orchestrated by the Japanese forces from their capture of the Island in 1942 until their eventual recapture by the American forces in 1945.
See the fact file below for more information on the Battles of Corregidor or alternatively, you can download our 23-page Battles of Corregidor worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
WORLD WAR II IN THE PACIFIC
- Japanese expansion in East Asia began in 1931, beginning with the invasion of Manchuria, and continued in 1937 attacking China.
- Japan then signed the Tripartite Pact on September 27, 1940 with Germany and Italy, entering the military alliance known as the “Axis”.
- With its newfound allies and military strength, Japan ignored the United States’ demand to leave China. This caused the former to impose sanctions against Japan.
- Faced with severe shortages of oil and other natural resources, Japan decided to invade the neighboring Asian countries under the protection of the US and Great Britain.
- Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941.
- In response, the United States declared war on Japan. Following Germany’s declaration of war on the United States, the latter also declared war on Germany.
- After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan met little to no resistance in their endeavor to invade their target countries.
- In December 1941, the Japanese took over Guam, Wake Island, and Hong Kong. Philippines was then invaded in the first half of 1942, followed by Indonesia, Malaya, Singapore, and Burma.
- Japanese troops also invaded Thailand and coerced its leaders to declare war on the United States and Great Britain.
JAPANESE INVASION IN THE PHILIPPINES
- Ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan began its aerial and ground attacks in the Philippines.
- The defending Philippine and United States troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur who was caught off guard by the attack just like by the Japanese in Pearl Harbor.
- The aircraft of his command were destroyed so the naval forces were ordered to leave since reinforcement and resupply of his ground forces were impossible.
- As a result, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor.
- To prevent destruction and civilian casualties, Manila was declared an open city to be occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942.
THE 1942 BATTLE OF CORREGIDOR
- Corregidor, officially named Fort Mills, was the largest of four fortified islands housing the American and Filipino forces. Knowing this, the Japanese forces began their aerial bombardment on December 29, 1941.
- Periodic bombing followed the following months, forcing the Filipino and American forces into defense.
- The 4th Marine Regiment and combined units from the United States Army, the US Navy, and Filipino soldiers, resisted valiantly from December 29 to the end of April 1942.
- On March 12, 1942, Gen. MacArthur was evacuated from Corregidor and was flown to Australia. He left Lt. Gen Jonathan M. Wainwright in command in the Philippines.
- Soon, food rations became difficult for the defense force and men to get hold of and they weakened and lacked reliable night vision.
- After the Fall of Bataan on April 9, the Japanese forces concentrated their invading force on Corregidor. Japanese bombing and shelling continued.
- On May 5, Japanese forces led by Maj. Gen. Kureo Taniguchi landed on Corregidor shores. Back and forth battles were fought until General Wainwright decided to surrender on May 6, 1942 and avoid suffering more casualties.
- Corregidor’s defeat marked the fall of the Philippines and Asia. About 4,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war from Corregidor were marched to be incarcerated at POW camps at Fort Santiago and Bilibid Prison.
THE 1945 BATTLE OF CORREGIDOR
- Almost three years after the Fall of Corregidor, Gen MacArthur and the US troops prepared to retake the fallen country.
- In 1945, he developed a strategy to make a combined amphibious and airborne assault to take over Corregidor Island.
- Beginning January 23, 1945, heavy bombers of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) commenced the aerial attack while US Navy cruisers and destroyers added the bombardment.
- Another strategy for recapture was for the paratroopers to land on a hill known as ‘Topside’, the island’s foremost dominant terrain feature.
- The task fell to the 503rd Parachute Regimental Combat Team led by Lieutenant Colonel George M. Jones.
- The first of 2,050 US paratroopers landed on two tiny drop zones and were met with low drop altitude injuries and increasing Japanese resistance when they were discovered.
- Meanwhile, the infantrymen landed by boat on various locations surrounding the island, successfully linking with the paratroopers who arrived earlier.
- As simultaneous battles progressed, Japanese soldiers eventually raced out of tunnels for hand-to-hand fighting or “banzai” attacks for their last ditch effort.
- Some Japanese soldiers chose suicide by explosion so 50 of 6,700 soldiers were captured alive soon as their losing battle was over.
- US casualties were reported to be around 210, with 790 wounded, and 5 missing.
Battles of Corregidor Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Battles of Corregidor across 23 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Battles of Corregidor worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Battles of Corregidor during WWII which were two conflicts orchestrated by the Japanese forces from their capture of the Island in 1942 until their eventual recapture by the American forces in 1945.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Battle of Corregidor Facts
- World War II
- WWII Philippines
- Losing Corregidor
- Faces of War
- Angels of Bataan and Corregidor
- Winning Corregidor
- “Pilipinas Kong Mahal”
- Peacekeeping Force
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Link will appear as Battles of Corregidor Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, February 24, 2021
Use With Any Curriculum
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