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Table of Contents
Dated during the 1791-1804 period, the Haitian revolution is considered to be one of the most successful anti-slavery rebellions in the Western Hemisphere. It created a significant event in history as Haiti (then-known as Saint Domingue) emerged as the second independent country in the Americas, following US independence in 1783.
See the fact file below for more information on the Haitian Revolution or alternatively, you can download our 21-page Haitian Revolution worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- In the 18th century, Haiti lived under the control of France as its wealthiest overseas colony, mainly because of its large production in sugar, coffee, indigo, and cotton. Its people also served as the enslaved labor force for a long time.
- In 1789, as the French revolution broke out, the Haitian people were divided into five distinct groups.
- The white planters who had ownership of plantations and slaves and the petit blancs who were known as artisans, shop keepers, and teachers, who also owned some slaves, consisted of the first two groups. Combined, the two amounted to 40,000 Haitians.
- As France imposed unreasonable tariffs on the items being imported into the colony that forbade them from trading with other countries, many of these white planters supported movements toward gaining independence.
- The white population of Saint Domingue then also did not have any representation in France. However, both the white planters and petit blancs still adhered to the institution of slavery, even when they called for independence.
- The rest of the three groups were of African descent including those who were free, those who were slaves, and those who had run away.
- There were 30,000 free black people in 1789. On the other end, there were around 500,000 slaves. The runaway slaves, also known as maroons, lived in the mountains of Saint Domingue and survived through subsistence farming.
- Colonial officials and white planters tried all means to control the slave population, but the slaves were never willing to undergo any subjugation and so they retaliated through numerous slave rebellions at that time.
- Inspired by the French revolution’s Declaration of the Rights of Man, the Haitian revolution took place alongside various slave rebellions going on simultaneously.
- In order for Haiti to remain as its colony, the General Assembly in Paris tried to elude Haitian people by enacting legislation that granted some local-level autonomy but was rather ambiguous and radical.
- The legislation caused a civil war between the three sides involving the white planters, petit blancs, and the free black people. But such groups were challenged by the slave population who were part of the majority.
- On 21 August 1791, the enslaved blacks, led by former slave Toussaint L’Ouverture, revolted against white planters. They succeeded to have control of a third of the island by 1792.
- Despite the relentless attempts of the French and British forces to conquer the colony, the adamant and strong slave population managed to defeat the two powerhouses.
- In 1781, L’Ouverture expanded the revolution throughout the Dominican Republic (then-known as Santo Domingo), a neighboring Spanish colony, where he successfully abolished slavery and declared himself as the Governor-General across Hispaniola islands.
- As Napoleon Bonaparte served as the new leader of France, he sent a 43,000-strong army troop led by General Charles Leclerc to capture L’Ouverture and once again establish French rule and slavery.
- As L’Ouverture was captured and died in prison in 1803, a former general of L’Ouverture and a former slave named Jean-Jacques Dessalines spearheaded revolutionaries in the Battle of Vertieres on 18 November 1803, where they ended victorious against French forces.
- On 1 January 1804, Dessalines proclaimed the independence of the nation and renamed it Haiti, the “land of high mountains” in the indigenous Taíno language.
- The Haitian revolution brought new concepts of human rights, universal citizenship, and participation in government.
- This slave rebellion likewise inspired similar revolutions in Jamaica, Grenada, Colombia, and Venezuela.
Haitian Revolution Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Haitian Revolution across 21 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Haitian Revolution worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Haitian revolution which is considered to be one of the most successful anti-slavery rebellions in the Western Hemisphere. It created a significant event in history as Haiti (then-known as Saint Domingue) emerged as the second independent country in the Americas, following US independence in 1783.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Haitian Revolution Facts
- Locating Haiti
- Haitian Revolution: Background
- Complete the Information
- Haitian Uprisings
- Haitian Revolution: A Timeline
- Toussaint L’Ouverture
- People Behind the Revolution
- The Haitian Revolution’s Legacy
- In a Nutshell
- Other Revolutions
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Link will appear as Haitian Revolution Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, November 5, 2019
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