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At the beginning of the nineteenth century, historians began to use “Hundred Years’ War” to describe the long dispute between the kingdoms of France and England which lasted from 1337 to 1453. See the fact file below for more information on the Hundred Years’ War or alternatively download our comprehensive worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
- During the 14th century, the kingdom of France was way ahead in financial and military resources compared to the smaller kingdom of England.
- The series of battles comprising the hundred years’ war started when King Edward III of England claimed that he was the rightful king of France. When Edward was fifteen, King Charles IV of France died without a male heir. Edward was the son of Isabelle of France thus urged him to assert his right to the throne. Philip was chosen to be the king instead of Edward.
- However, the English army won several battles at Sluys in 1340, Crecy in 1346, and Poitiers in 1356 all led by the son of King Edward III, Edward “Black Prince”. The English army was described as well disciplined with great skills in longbows.
- After the victory of England, King John of France forcibly accepted the Treaty of Calais which granted Guyenne its independence. The duchy of Guyenne was a large part of France.
- By 1380 after a series of sieges, Charles V son of King John, reconquered much of the territory with the help of his commander-in-chief Bertrand du Guesclin.
- In 1415, Henry V of England was victorious at the battle in Agincourt. He also conquered Normandy in 1417 and attempted to be the king of France through the Treaty of Troyes by 1420.
- By 1429, French people from the south did not accept the English rule. As a result, a young peasant girl named Joan of Arc became notable after she led the French army and lifted the siege of Orleans. It was followed by the liberation of Paris and Ile-de-France from 1436 to 1441. Joan of Arc was burned at the stake when she was captured by the English troops.
Hundred Years’ War Facts
- In 1450, the Duchy of Normandy was recaptured by Charles VII after the battle of Formigny followed by retaking Guyenne at the battle of Castillon in 1453. The French army pushed the English out after taking Bordeaux on the same year marking the end of the Hundred Years’ War. The English did not attempted to invade France since they were torn apart by the War of Roses.
- Today, some historians categorize the war into three era: The Edwardian (1337-1360), the Caroline (1369-1389), and the Lancastrian (1415-1453). Wherein most the armies were mercenaries or paid army.
- The war lasted for 116 years. It was considered as a slow military revolution. Gunpowder weapons were used by the French to cast out the English from Normandy and Gascony. The castle of Castelnau-de-Cernes in Gascony was broken down by cannons in 1437. In order for the French to win against the English archers their artillery played a significant role.
- Engaging a kingdom to war also means larger expenses. European monarchs imposed more taxes upon the people. Taxes were levied on salt, bread, and wine as well as the right to use wine presses and mills.
- The battles during the Hundred Years War were all fought on the French soil. Farmlands were not used, the declining population faced famine, and the Black Death devastated the kingdom.
- Louis XI, successor of Charles VII united France under his authority ruling out the feudal nobility instead he gained ally with the middle class.
- The English expanded their naval power as well as ceasing continental power.
Hundred Years’ War Worksheets
This bundle contains 11 ready-to-use Hundred Years’ War Worksheets that are perfect for students who want to learn more about one of the world’s most renowned historical warfare. The Hundred Years’ War refers to the long dispute between the kingdoms France and England.
Download includes the following worksheets
- Hundred Years’ War Facts
- War Mapping
- War of Kingdoms
- Ruling Monarchs
- Between 1337 to 1453
- Cause and Effect
- Royal Glossary
- War of Roses Facts
- The Middle Ages
- What’s the Difference?
- Joan of Arc
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Link will appear as Hundred Years’ War Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, May 22, 2019
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.