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Jay’s Treaty, signed in 1795 by the United States and Great Britain, resolved issues that remained from the Treaty of Paris, which was signed in 1783. It facilitated peaceful trading between the two countries and averted potential future wars.
See the fact file below for more information on the Jay’s Treaty or alternatively, you can download our 20-page Jay’s Treaty worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
ISSUES PRIOR TO JAY’S TREATY
- When the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783, it ended the American Revolutionary War.
- The treaty set boundaries between the British Empire in North America and the United States, and it also included stipulations regarding fishing rights, restoration of property, and the restoration of prisoners of war.
- These terms were very generous for the U.S.
- The key points of the Treaty of Paris included:
- Britain would acknowledge the U.S. as a free, sovereign nation
- Britain would surrender previously owned land in the U.S.
- The guarantee of fishing rights and rightful restitution
- The recognition of debts to be paid on both sides
- The release of British and American prisoners of war and territories captured by either side
- Access by both parties to the Mississippi River
- A ratification of the treaty six months from its signing
- The consequences of the Treaty of Paris were that it was very generous to the United States in terms of the boundaries it awarded them.
- As a result of the concession of so much land, the United States expanded and grew rapidly, which positioned them to be excellent, neutral trading partners with European countries.
- Unfortunately, Great Britain violated treaty stipulations by remaining stationed at forts in the Great Lakes region, which resulted in tense situations between the two countries.
- In addition, the boundary with Canada (still controlled by Great Britain) was vague in several places, and Britain was still selling munitions to First Nations peoples in the Great Lakes region.
- Furthermore, the British were continuing to pressure American sailors into the Royal Navy to fight against France.
TERMS OF JAY’S TREATY
- Jay’s Treaty satisfied both the United States and Great Britain by achieving many objectives.
- It was named after John Jay, the Chief Justice of the United States and the signatory to the document.
- The treaty stipulated that Britain would leave all of its posts by June 1, 1796, and that merchants from both countries would have free access to lands on either side of the border, including indigenous groups.
- It also guaranteed that the Mississippi River would be open to both countries.
- The treaty also made sure that a commission to settle debts on both
sides would be established.
- Americans could trade with Great Britain on the basis that they were each others “favored nation”.
- The treaty irritated the Americans in two ways. First, Southern slaveholders in the United States weren’t granted compensation for the slaves they lost when they were taken to the West Indies with their masters between 1781 and 1783. Second, the impressment of American sailors into the Royal Navy didn’t end (this would later become an issue during the War of 1812).
- Article III of the treaty stipulates that indigenous people would be free to pass and repass between the borders to work, study, retire, or simply live, as long as they could prove that they had at least 50% blood quantum (that their ancestry was 50% Indian).
ISSUES WITH THE TREATY
- One of the harshest critics of the treaty was Thomas Jefferson, who argued that the treaty only took into account the views of the Federalists in the United States and not of the opposing party – the Jeffersonians – who were more supportive of France in the European wars.
- Jeffersonians viewed the treaty as a threat to U.S. Republican values and denounced those who supported the treaty as “monarchists” who had betrayed American values.
- These disagreements further divided the country’s two major political factions.
HISTORICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TREATY
- Historians have noted that the treaty was harsh against John Jay, as he neglected important issues and settled for more non-important issues.
- They also argue that, while he did not assert neutral rights, he did manage to include the prevention of war with Great Britain.
- Some historians argue that the war with Great Britain wasn’t necessarily avoided, but rather it was put off until the United States was stronger and more capable of handling it.
- Other historians view the treaty as the first positive step in the right direction following years of trials and tribulations following the American War of Independence. They argue that this treaty was the first to establish a special relationship between the two countries and that it calmed any remaining tension.
- Some modern examinations of the treaty suggest that it served American interests well, while others think it served the British more favorably, as it bet on England rather than France as being the dominant power in Europe.
Jay’s Treaty Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Jay’s Treaty across 20 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Jay’s Treaty worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Jay’s Treaty, signed in 1795 by the United States and Great Britain, which resolved issues that remained from the Treaty of Paris, which was signed in 1783. It facilitated peaceful trading between the two countries and averted potential future wars.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Jay’s Treaty Facts
- The First Party System
- Contemporary Issues with Jay’s Treaty
- Ceremonial Poster
- A Closer Look at John Jay
- Jay’s Treaty Crossword
- Peaceful Trade Picture Cards
- Special Relationships
- John Jay Photo Puzzle
- Opinion Piece
- Jay’s Treaty Wordsearch
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Link will appear as Jay’s Treaty Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, June 11, 2020
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.