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The July Revolution mainly refers to the French Revolution of 1830, also known as the Second French Revolution. Locally, it is called Révolution de Juillet, or Trois Glorieuses, which means “Three Glorious Days”. The French Revolution overthrew the French Bourbon monarch King Charles X and led to the restoration of the house of Bourbon.
See the fact file below for more information on the July Revolution or alternatively, you can download our 22-page July Revolution worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- The July Revolution took place in France.
- It spanned for three days, from July 26 to July 29, 1830.
- The French society participated in this revolution.
- The French Revolution of 1830 abdicated Charles X, followed by the ascension of Louis Philippe to the French throne.
- The July Monarchy was established after the revolution.
TREATY OF VIENNA
- Napoleon’s dominion over France ended in his defeat on June 18, 1815, at the Battle of Waterloo.
- Due to Napoleon’s defeat, France was imposed to agree to the terms of the Treaty of Vienna.
- The Treaty of Vienna reverted France’s borders from 1791.
- The house of Bourbon was also restored, and the throne was succeeded by Louis XVIII.
- King Louis XVIII picked the white flag as the new flag for France.
- Since King Louis XVI, Louis XVIII’s brother, was decapitated during the French Revolution on January 21, 1793, Louis XVIII made sure that he attended to his people’s needs and demands properly.
- King Louis XVIII accepted the “La Charte Constitutionnelle” or The Constitutional Charter, an agreement that secured the rights gained during the first revolution.
- Because of this, his reign was generally peaceful and stable.
- Louis XVIII’s peaceful reign fueled the Industrial Revolution in France, a revolution that inevitably led to mass unemployment since machines were replacing human labor.
- This is a contributing factor to the Second French Revolution, as well as the revolutions that followed.
- Louis XVIII died on September 16th, 1824, due to a chronic disease.
FRANCE UNDER CHARLES X
- Charles X succeeded Louis XVIII to the French Throne.
- Charles X was initially perceived well by the French society.
- People’s perception changed when Charles X appointed Joseph de Villéle as his prime minister.
- Villéle was a leader of the ultra-royalist faction.
- In April 1825, a legislation ordering the compensation of nobles whose land were confiscated during the 1789 revolution was passed.
- An “anti-blasphemy” law was passed, punishable from perpetual forced labor to decapitation.
- This was seen as an interference to France’s religious equality imposed by the Constitutional Charter.
- It was seen as an attempt to undermine the constitution.
- On April 16, 1827, some members of the National Guard screamed “Down with Villéle!” , “Down with the ministers!” as Charles X was reviewing them on Champ de Mars.
- Charles X disbanded the National Guard but failed to disarm them.
- The king suffered a huge blow as the 1827 legislative election resulted in a win of 153 liberal representatives and the loss of 228 ultra-royalist deputies.
- Due to this defeat, Charles X planned to introduce censorship laws against the press and to silence the criticism he received.
- Fortunately, his proposal failed humiliatingly, as liberal representatives fervently disagreed with it.
- Prime Minister Villéle resigned and was replaced by Vicomte de Martignac.
- Martignac was quickly dismissed and was replaced by Jules de Polignac, son of the most hated woman during the first French Revolution.
- Charles X threatened the opposition in March 1830, but he failed, as liberal deputies retaliated and voted for a motion stating that the king was no longer fit to remain in power.
- Charles X dissolved the assembly and hoped that the new election result would favor the ultra-royalist faction. Again, he failed.
- On July 25, 1830, he released the July Ordinances, also known as the Four Ordinances of Saint-Cloud, that ordered the:
- Suspension of freedom of press
- Dissolution of the one-week old assembly
- Reduction of the number of deputies and imposition of stricter requirements to vote
- During the night, the ordinances were sent to Le Moniteur, the official Newspaper of the government.
- Organizing the ordinance was done in clandestine, and not even the military was informed.
- On July 26, 1830, the people of Paris found out about the ordinances by reading Le Moniteur.
- The commercial bourgeoisie quickly protested by shutting down their factories, leading to unemployment.
- Then, large numbers of jobless people had nothing to do but protest.
- Journalists from different publications signed a collective protest and insisted that their publications would continue to operate.
TIMELINE OF THE REVOLUTION
- Day one – July 27, 1830: newspapers continued to publish material attacking the king.
- Police failed to seize the press against the defense of a mob.
- Barricades were established.
- The clash between soldiers and rioters began.
- 22 rioters were killed.
- Day two – July 28, 1830: General Auguste de Marmont was sent to Paris.
- Marmont was outnumbered, as most soldiers were in Algiers.
- Anti-Bourbon settlement called for the guillotine.
- Polignac, along with the other ministers, were forced to hide.
- The protesters raised a tricolor flag and rang the bell of Paris.
- Former soldiers of the National Guard sided with the people.
- Polignac advised Charles X to continue resisting.
- Day three – July 29, 1830: The monarchy fell.
- General Marmont never received reinforcements.
- 4,000 barricades were erected in Paris, manned by 30,000 revolutionaries.
- The Louvre was captured, then the Tuileries Palace, implying that the king had been defeated.
- A provisional government was organised by the liberals.
July Revolution Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the July Revolution across 22 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use July Revolution worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the July Revolution which mainly refers to the French Revolution of 1830, also known as the Second French Revolution. Locally, it is called Révolution de Juillet, or Trois Glorieuses, which means “Three Glorious Days”. The French Revolution overthrew the French Bourbon monarch King Charles X and led to the restoration of the house of Bourbon.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- July Revolution Facts
- Revolution Timeline
- Odd One Out
- History Check
- Key Figures
- Make It True
- Revolution Chants
- Causes and Effects
- Events Collage
- France Then and Now
- Learned Lessons
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Use With Any Curriculum
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