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Table of Contents
See the fact file below for more information on the Oregon Treaty or alternatively, you can download our 23-page Oregon Treaty worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
EARLY EXPLORATION OF OREGON COUNTY
- In 1792, George Vancouver explored the Puget Sound.
- On June 4, 1792, George Vancouver claimed the land in the name of Great Britain. Vancouver decided to name it after his officer, Lieutenant Peter Puget.
- From 1805-1806, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the territory for the USA.
- During 1807, David Thompson and Simon Fraser explored much of the Oregon County region. They traveled through the Fraser River to the mouth of the river in 1808.
- Thompson was the first European to voyage down the entire length of the Columbia River.
- On July 9, 1811, Thompson’s party camped at the junction of the Snake River and the Columbia River. Thompson placed a sign claiming the country for the United Kingdom.
- Thompson stated the intention was that the North West Company would build a trading post at the site.
- On the same expedition, he finished his survey of the entire Columbia area. He arrived at an unfinished Fort Astoria two months after departure.
- The Oregon Country consisted of land north of 42° north latitude, south of 54°40’ north latitude, west of the Rocky Mountains.
HISTORY OF THE OREGON COUNTRY
- Oregon Country was the region of the Pacific Northwest of North America that was disputed over by the US and Britain.
- In the early 1800s, the region was occupied by British and French Canadian fur traders.
- The Treaty of 1818 set the original boundary between the US and British North America.
- The border is along the 49th Parallel line of north latitude from Minnesota to the Rocky Mountains.
- The 49th Parallel border of the US and British Territories was separated by Vancouver Island in the Pacific Ocean.
- Spain, Great Britain, Russia, and the US were the original countries who laid claim to the territory.
- In 1819, under the terms of the Transcontinental Treaty, Spain ceded its claims to the US.
- In 1821, there was a forced merger between the North West Company and the Hudson Bay Company.
- Britain imposed the laws of Upper Canada on British subjects.
- The Hudson Bay Company was the authority to enforce the laws.
- From 1824 – 1825, through the Russo-American Treaty, Britain and America gained majority claims to the disputed area.
- A dispute between the US and Great Britain occurred when the US wanted to extend the border along the same parallel line.
- Britain insisted that the northern border be west of the Columbia River and then follow the river to the ocean.
- Both sides refused to back down, agreeing to postpone the decision for ten years.
- In 1827, Washington and London agreed to postpone the issue indefinitely.
- In the mid-1830s, the coastal areas north of the Columbia River visited by ships from many nations engaged in maritime fur trade.
- In 1843, there was an increase in American immigration on the Oregon Trail.
- These settlers established a government, calling it the Provisional Government of Oregon.
- The legislative committee drew up the laws known as the Organic Laws. In 1844, a new legislative committee considered it statutory.
- In 1845, more changes were made to the Organic Laws, including the participation of British subjects in the local government.
- In 1845, James K. Polk was elected president of the US, and he insisted that America’s claim would be pursued by force if needed.
- In 1846, The Oregon Treaty was signed between America and Britain. The Oregon Treaty settled the boundaries of US jurisdiction.
- The Provisional Government continued to function until 1849, until the first Governor of Oregon Territory arrived.
- The treaty was negotiated by Secretary of State James Buchanan and Richard Pakenham.
- Foreign Secretary Earl of Aberdeen was responsible for the parliament part of the treaty.
- On June 15, 1846, The Oregon Treaty was signed, and on August 15, 1848, the US portion of the region became known as the Oregon Territory.
- In 1849, Vancouver Island and all the coastal islands became the Colony of Vancouver Island. These islands remained under British control.
- In 1853, the Washington Territory would be formed from the Oregon Territory.
- In 1866, two British colonies would join as the United Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia.
- In 1871, British Columbia joined Canada.
- The 49th Parallel line and a marine border made from the Oregon Treaty become the Canada – US border.
- The San Juan Islands was the last of the territory that remained under British rule.
- In 1872, arbitration began with Wilhelm I as head of the arbitration commission.
- On October 21, 1872, the commission awarded the San Juan Islands to the US.
Oregon Treaty Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Oregon Treaty across 23 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Oregon Treaty worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Oregon Treaty which was signed between the US and Great Britain in 1846. It ended 28 years of joint occupancy of the Pacific Northwest and established the 49th Parallel border between the countries.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Oregon Treaty Facts
- Draw a Map
- Fill in the Blanks
- True or False
- River Wordsearch
- Write a Letter
- Cooking Time
- Oregon Trail
- Pop Quiz
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Link will appear as Oregon Treaty Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, March 4, 2021
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.