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The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period beginning 27 BC until 1453 AD, the fall of the Eastern Empire.
See the fact file below for more information on the Roman Emperors or alternatively, you can download our 28-page Roman Emperors worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
BEFORE THE EMPIRE
- Before the rise of the Roman Empire, Rome began with the Roman Kingdom from 753–509 BC.
- The recognized leader was called the king, chosen by people to serve for life, with none of the kings relying on military force to gain or keep the throne.
- According to legends, the first king was Romulus. He and his twin brother were the sons of the Roman god of war, Mars.
- Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the last king to reign from 535–509 BC. He conquered Latin cities and established colonies.
- After the fall of the Roman Kingdom, the era of classical Roman civilization rose.
- It lasted from 509–27 BC and its politics were influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate.
- The Republic was in a state of war throughout its existence. Its greatest enemy was Carthage, who waged three wars.
- Constant internal conflict and civil war, made worse by the fact that the legions were more loyal to their generals than the Senate, caused the fall of the Roman Republic.
BIRTH OF THE EMPIRE
- Historians regard Augustus as the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, while Julius Caesar is considered the last dictator of the Roman Republic.
- Although some consider Julius Caesar as the first real emperor, since he was given the title “perpetual dictator” before getting assassinated.
- His adopted son, Octavian, soon waged war against Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the final war of the Roman Republic.
- The principate then gave him the name “Augustus,” meaning “the venerated.”
- The principate is a name given to the first period of the Roman Empire characterized by the reign of a single emperor (princeps meaning chief or first).
- It is within this period the Flavian dynasty was born to promote economic and cultural reforms, revaluation of the Roman coinage, and a massive building program that includes the famous Colosseum.
- It is also within the principate that Rome was ruled by the “Five Good Emperors” Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
- Before the entry of the new reigns, Rome suffered a devastating war called the Crisis of the Third Century against barbarian invasions and migration.
- This resulted in the empire. However, the empire was reunited by Aurelian (270-275 CE).
- Under the dominate, the burden of the imperial position was shared between colleagues, referred to as the consortium imperii, introducing a system called the tetrarchy.
- In the reign of Diocletian, civilian and military reforms were implemented, devaluating the roles of the senators and soon appointed consuls.
- He also divided Rome in half in 285 CE, to facilitate more efficient administration. He created the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine), which was ruled by his co-emperor Maximian.
- Upon his death in 311 CE, Maxentius and Constantine, the chosen successors of the divided empire waged war.
- Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge and became the emperor of the Western and Eastern Empires.
- His death, however, once again divided the Roman Empire after his sons fought each other.
DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE – EASTERN EMPIRE
- The Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire, became a Christian state with Greek as the official language.
- However, the Byzantine government followed the patterns established in Rome.
- Compared to the Western Empire, the Byzantine Empire flourished from 330 to 1453 CE, with its capital founded at Constantinople.
- The Byzantine government ran under the Justinian Code, or Corpus Juris Civilis (Corpus of Civil Law), by Justinian I.
- Following the rule of several dynasties, Christianity was proclaimed the official religion of Rome.
- War waged on during the following centuries and on May 29, 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople, Mehmed triumphantly entered the Hagia Sophia.
- Emperor Constantine XI died in battle that day, and the Byzantine Empire collapsed.
DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE – WESTERN EMPIRE
- The Western Roman Empire only lasted from 395 to 476.
- After the division, the divided empires saw each other as enemies, hence left to territorial problems on their own.
- From Honorius, the first sole Western emperor, to the next, military and civilian strife burdened the empire, plus the Gothic wars and internal corruption, meant the Western Empire was bound to disappear.
- On September 4, 476 CE, the last Western Rome Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic King Odoacer, thus the precursor of the fall of Rome.
Roman Emperors Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Roman Emperors across 28 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Roman Emperors worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Roman emperor who was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period beginning 27 BC until 1453 AD, the fall of the Eastern Empire.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Roman Emperor Facts
- Heads of State
- Emperors’ Dominion
- The Founder
- The Truth
- Damnatio Memoriae
- Great Seven
- Latin Speaking
- The Emperor
- Final Reign
- Imperial Grammar
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Link will appear as Roman Emperors Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, March 3, 2020
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.