Download This Sample
This sample is exclusively for KidsKonnect members!
To download this worksheet, click the button below to signup for free (it only takes a minute) and you'll be brought right back to this page to start the download!
Sign Me Up
Thanks to Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire was established after he proclaimed himself the first emperor of Rome in 31 B.C. His reign came to an end with the fall of Constantinople in 1453 C.E.
See the fact file below for more information on the Roman Empire or alternatively, you can download our 25-page Roman Empire worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
ROMULUS AND REMUS
- The legend was that Rome was founded by the twin sons of the God of War, Mars.
- Left to drown in a basket on the Tiber by a king of nearby Alba Longa and rescued by a she-wolf, the twins lived to defeat him.
- After killing his brother, Romulus became the first king of Rome, which is named for him.
- Monarchy was the initial rule, but in 509 B.C. the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was overthrown. It was said he was cruel and unbecoming as a ruler.
- Rome turned from a monarchy into a republic, a world derived from res publica, or “property of the people.”
- Elected magistrates called consuls managed politics in Rome, including the army.
THE HIGH IMPERIAL ROM
- Julius Caesar took full power over Rome as its dictator. He held supreme military and political power at the time as granted by the senate. However, this rule ended with his tragic assassination.
- Shortly after Julius Caesar’s death, the Senate willingly granted Augustus Caesar the title of Emperor. He was the first emperor of Rome.
- Augustus’ rule restored morale in Rome after a century of discord and promoted pax Romana – two full centuries of peace and prosperity.
- Augustus established a form of government known as a principate, where the Senate still functioned, but he remained in control of the government.
- His rule resulted to all good emperors being treated as gods. Among them were Trajan (98–117), Hadrian (117–138), Antoninus Pius (138–161), and Marcus Aurelius (161–180).
- The territories of Rome expanded over time. However, this power eventually declined.
THE LOW IMPERIAL ROME
- Constant wars and expansions were very expensive to maintain, and thus the Empire became crippled with debt. This impoverished the population and many lost their identity and values.
- Eastern Rome fell to destruction, leaving Constantine the sole emperor of the earlier divided empire.
- He was to be the last emperor of the unified empire. He instituted Christianity as the official religion of the Empire.
- Constantine’s successor, Theodosius, divided the Empire between his two sons, Arcadius and Honorius, creating the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.
- The Western Roman Empire fell in 476. The other half, called the Byzantine Empire, survived until 1453, which marked the decline of Constantinople, now called Istanbul.
- The City of Rome grew along with the empire – it became a magnet for artists, merchants, and people of all walks of life.
- Rome achieved great territorial gains in both the east and the west.
- To the west and southward along North Africa, the empire included Hispania, Mauretania, and Numidia.
- Eastward and into the Middle East were Egypt, Judea, Syria, Parthia, and Asia Minor.
- To the north were Britannia, Germania, and Gaul.
- Closer to Italy and to the east were Macedon, Greece, Moesia, and Dacia. Add to this the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily.
- Throughout the empire there were large cities with 100,000 to 300,000 inhabitants: Alexandria, Carthage, Antioch, Pergamum, Ephesus, and Lyons.
- The maximum territorial occupancy was under the rule of Constantine the Great.
- He converted to Christianity and founded New Rome, a Christian capital, on the site of Byzantium.
- During Constantine’s time, Rome had two capitals, Rome and Byzantium.
- In the East, Constantinople also held the imperial court, whereas in the West, it was in Milan, and from 405, in Ravenna.
- Constantine created a new gold coinage, which was to remain unchanged for centuries, and even reconquered some land north of the Danube.
- The sheer size of the empire eventually became problematic – it was too large to manage and became more susceptible to barbaric invasions.
- In 395, Theodosius the Great, the last Emperor of the East and West, died.
- The rule of Rome now lay in the hands of non-Roman leaders. Odovacer was of German origin, and now titled himself King of Italy. He claimed to govern in the name of Emperor Zeno in the East.
- In 527, Justinian the Great came to the throne in Constantinople, with a mission to regain the West for the Empire. He briefly regained control, but constant wars and the Justinian plague eventually caused the empire’s slow downfall.
- The “Renovation of Imperial Rome” by Charlemagne saved the dying empire for many years. He called himself the Roman Emperor of the West.
- Papal power also rose at this time and after Charlemagne’s death, the Pope crowned Otto I, King of Germany as the new Emperor.
- Later, the battle for Christian and Islamic power began, resulting in the infamous Crusades.
- Internal revolts within the empire were capitalized on by the Turks. They occupied the whole of Anatolia, and the Empire could not field an army to stop them.
- In desperation, Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) asked the Pope in 1095 to help raise an army from Western Christendom.
- In 1097, the army of the First Crusade crossed from Constantinople to Anatolia. By 1098, it had fought its way to Syria and Edessa.
- The Byzantine army accompanying it occupied as much of Anatolia as it could, and the new Crusader states on Roman territory promised to recognize the Emperor as their overlord.
- The succeeding Crusades expanded eastwards into Poland, taking over Silesia in 1163 and annexing Pomerania in 1181.
- After the death of Manuel Comnenus, the Eastern Empire went into another rapid decline. Relations with the West deteriorated, and civil wars broke out.
- The remaining Byzantine territory split into states: the Empire of Nicaea in west Anatolia, the Empire of Trebizond in the north, and the Despotate of Epirus on the Adriatic.
- The Roman Empire in the West effectively ceased to exist in 1282, when Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg recognized the 1278 declaration of independence by the Papal States.
- The Ottoman empire eventually rose into power and reclaimed the lands taken over by the Roman empire. The siege and defeat of Constantinople in 1453 was the final straw. The Roman Empire finally came to an end after 1790 years.
Roman Empire Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Roman Empire across 25 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Roman Empire worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Roman Empire which was established thanks to Augustus Caesar after he proclaimed himself the first emperor of Rome in 31 B.C. His reign came to an end with the fall of Constantinople in 1453 C.E.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Imperial Timeline
- Territorial Expansion
- Roman Greatness
- Rockin’ Rulers
- Punic Wars
- Conquered Lands
- Those Who Fought Back
- Rome Divided
- Imperials Rulers
- The Roman Empire
Link/cite this page
If you reference any of the content on this page on your own website, please use the code below to cite this page as the original source.
Link will appear as Roman Empire Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, January 3, 2019
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.