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Benito Mussolini created the Fascist Party in Italy in 1919, eventually making himself dictator throughout until his death in 1945.
See the fact file below for more information on the Benito Mussolini or alternatively, you can download our 22-page Benito Mussolini worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born in July 29, 1883 in Predappio, Italy.
- He was the first child of Alessandro, a blacksmith and socialist and Rosa Maltoni, a devout Catholic teacher.
- Known to be boisterous but intelligent, his father’s passion for socialist politics and defiance against authority influenced his life.
- Though he was expelled from several schools for bullying and defying school authorities, he obtained a teaching certificate in 1901 and worked as a schoolmaster.
- By age 19, Mussolini left Italy for Switzerland to promote socialism.
- He emerged as an effective political journalist and public speaker, influencing listeners based on philosophers and theorists Immanuel Kant, Peter Kropotkin, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georges Sorel, etc.
- He initiated propaganda for a trade union and proposed strikes and advocating violence to demand things.
- He was then arrested several times for his violent ventures so he temporarily returned to teaching. This did not last and he was imprisoned for the fifth time, just after his first marriage with Rachele Guidi.
- This, however, did not deter him from continuing with his endeavor.
- He founded a newspaper of his own, La Lotta di Classe, meaning “The Class Struggle.”
- This gave him more fame and soon, Mussolini had made known his favour for power through war. He was expelled from the Socialist Party but a new philosophy and war cry strengthened his passion, “Viva l’Italia!” [Long Live Italy!]. Thus, the rise of fascism.
THE FASCIST PARTY FOUNDER
- After surviving the first world war, he began his campaign to become the deacon of Italian supremacy – the dictator.
- Mussolini founded the Fascist Party on March 23, 1919, which organized several right-wing groups into a single force.
- He was supported by black shirts wearing fascists — which eventually won the crowd’s favor.
- He then organized several attacks on local government institutions and prevented left-wing administrations from taking power.
- By late 1921, the Fascists controlled large parts of Italy including Milan.
- On October 22, 1944, over 40,000 fascists marched towards Rome, threatening the monarchy. Mussolini stood his ground and eventually King Victor Emmanuel III prepared to accept the Fascist alternative.
- On October 31, 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister of Italy. He made it clear that he intended to govern authoritatively.
- He secured his position in the 1924 election by placing many fascists in the cabinet.
- In his early years, Mussolini carried out extensive public works programs and reduced unemployment, making him very popular with the people.
- Eventually, free speech was crushed and a network of spies and secret policemen watched over the population. He harassed and killed critics including Giacomo Matteotti.
- In October 1935, Benito Mussolini invaded Ethiopia. The Italians dropped tons of gas bombs upon the Ethiopian people.
- Although the European nations voiced their opposition, Mussolini still gained control over their new territory.
- This impressed the German dictator Adolf Hitler and sought to establish a relationship with Mussolini through the Pact of Steel military alliance.
- Influenced by Hitler, Mussolini passed anti-Semitic laws in Italy that discriminated against Jews. In 1940, Italy invaded Greece with some initial success.
ITALY AND WORLD WAR II
- While Germany was ready to wage war, Mussolini was not. He understood that a long war might prove disastrous.
- However, Hitler’s invasion of Poland and declaration of war with Britain and France forced Italy into war.
- Absent the military power and coup threat, Mussolini was not able to contribute well during the war in France. His role was relegated and just watched Germany invade Romania and Soviet Union with little to no notice.
- His failed effort to show power was further shown when Germany had to rescue him twice from Greece invasion and North African campaign.
- At the Casablanca Conference in 1942, Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt devised a plan to take Italy out of the war.
FALL OF THE REGIME
- Losing support from Germany, the Allied countries invaded Sicily and eventually marched up to the Italian peninsula in July 1943.
- Mussolini was forced to resign on July 25, 1943, and was arrested by his political enemies.
- He was however rescued by the German commandos. He then established a new Fascist government in the north and plotted to execute the members of the Grand Council.
- Once more he failed and his German allies began to falter. On June 4, 1944, the Allied forces liberated Rome.
- His second son had been killed in the war so he tried to flee to Switzerland by disguising as German soldier.
- Mussolini was recognized and, together with his mistress, Claretta Petacci, was shot and killed on April 28, 1945 in Mezzegra (near Dongo), Italy, and their bodies were hung on display in a Milan plaza.
- The Italian people celebrated the end of the Fascist regime and democracy was restored in the country after 20 years of dictatorship.
Benito Mussolini Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Benito Mussolini across 22 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Benito Mussolini worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about Benito Mussolini who created the Fascist Party in Italy in 1919, eventually making himself dictator throughout until his death in 1945.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Allied vs. Axis
- Axis Powers Trio
- Axis Soldiers
- The Italian Campaign
- Mussolini’s Words
- Italian War Crimes
- Fascism Rule
- My Country Leader
- No More Evil
- Poster for Peace
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Link will appear as Benito Mussolini Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, May 3, 2020
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.