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Table of Contents
Emil Fischer was a German Nobel Prize laureate who is famous for investigating the purine and sugar groups of various substances. He also developed a symbolic method of drawing carbon atoms.
See the fact file below for more information on the Emil Fischer or alternatively, you can download our 25-page Emil Fischer worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- Hermann Emil Louis Fischer was the son of Laurenz Fisher, born on October 9, 1852 in Euskirchen, Rhine Province, Germany.
- He had a private tutor for three years and then enrolled at the local school. He later studied at Wetzlar for 2 years and spent two more at Bonn.
- In 1869, he passed, with great distinction, his final exam in Bonn.
- His father initially wanted him to enter their family’s business; however, Emil wanted to study natural sciences.
- In 1871, his father sent him to the University of Bonn after Emil’s unsuccessful trial in their business.
- He enrolled in chemistry and attended classes by Engelbach, Kekulé, and Zincke. He also went to lectures by Paul Groth on mineralogy and on physics by August Kundt.
- In 1827, his cousin Otto Fischer convinced him to go to the newly established University of Strasbourg, although he still wanted to study physics.
- Emil met Adolf von Baeyer in Strasbourg. Adolf became the primary influence on Fischer’s devotion to chemistry.
- While studying under von Baeyer, Fischer worked on phthalein dyes.
- In 1874, Emil earned his PhD with a thesis about orcin-phthalein and fluorescein.
- He was appointed as an assistant instructor at the university in the same year.
- In 1875, Fischer discovered phenylhydrazine, the first hydrazine derivative to be characterized. He showed the relationship of phenylhydrazine to hydrazobenzene and to a sulphonic acid.
- He worked with Otto and they established the structure of rosaniline dyes which were discovered by August Wilhelm von Hofmann.
- Also in 1875, Fischer moved to the University of Munich in Liebig, following von Baeyer. He became an organic chemistry assistant there.
- In 1878, Emil qualified as a Privatdozent. This enabled him to get the position of Associate Professor of Analytical Chemistry in Munich in 1879.
- In the same year, he refused the offer of being the Chair of Chemistry at Aix-la-Chapelle.
- Fischer then became a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Erlangen in 1881.
- In 1883, he was offered to direct the scientific laboratory of Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik (Baden Aniline and Soda Factory), but refused because he preferred academic work.
- From 1888 until 1892, he stayed at the University of Würzburg as Professor of Chemistry.
- In 1892, Emil succeeded von Hofmann as the Chair of Chemistry at the University of Berlin. He remained at this university until his death.
- After separating from Baeyer’s laboratory, Emil used the classical chemical methods of organic chemistry to determine the structure of numerous biological compounds like proteins, purines, and sugars.
- In 1882, he began studying purines. Over the next 17 years, he demonstrated that caffeine, uric acid, xanthine, and other natural compounds were all associated with a base containing nitrogen that has a bicyclic structure. He named this purine.
- Fischer was able to synthesize purine in 1898.
- In 1884, Emil started studying known isomeric sugars to establish their chemical configuration and structure. He did this to also determine what causes the isomerism of these sugars.
- By using phenylhydrazine to react with the sugars, Fischer realized the sugars were spatial isomers and could be differentiated by using the tetrahedral carbon atom theory of Jacobus Henricus van’t Hoff.
- Emil was able to determine the stereochemical configuration of all the known isomeric sugars. He also synthesized the possible isomers of these sugars.
- In 1890, he synthesized fructose, glucose, and mannose from glycerol.
- He conducted other research on sugars between 1884 and 1894. His most important study is of the glucosides.
- From 1899 to 1908, Emil made great contributions to information regarding proteins.
- Fischer discovered new types of amino acids: proline and oxoproline.
- Emil also studied protein synthesis, establishing the type of bond that connects proteins in chains. He called this the peptide bond.
- In 1901, Fischer and Fourneau discovered how glycyl-glycine is synthesized. In the same year, he published his study on the hydrolysis of casein.
- His work with proteins led to a better understanding of the molecules and laid the foundations for later protein studies.
HONORS AND LEGACY
- Emil was made a Prussian Excellenz (Geheimrat).
- He also received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Cambridge (England), Brussels, Christiania, and Manchester.
- Fischer was also given the Maximillian Order for Arts and Sciences and the Prussian Order of Merit.
- In 1902, he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on purine syntheses and sugars.
- He also made essential efforts in establishing the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and the institutes for chemistry and physics related to it.
- Emil also had a part in organizing the manufacture of chemicals in Germany during WWI.
- Numerous chemical concepts and reactions were named after him.
PERSONAL LIFE AND DEATH
- Emil suffered gastritis when he was just 18. The disease attacked again towards the end of his stay at Erlangen. He took a leave of absence for a year because of this.
- Fischer had an excellent memory, enabling him to memorize lecture manuscripts that he wrote.
- In 1888, Emil married Agnes Gerlach. Seven years into their marriage, Agnes died. The couple had three sons.
- Fischer died in 1919, apparently from suicide, due to depression from the material and human costs of the war, as well as being diagnosed with intestinal cancer.
Emil Fischer Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Emil Fischer across 25 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Emil Fischer worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about Emil Fischer who was a German Nobel Prize laureate who is famous for investigating the purine and sugar groups of various substances. He also developed a symbolic method of drawing carbon atoms.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Fischer’s Life
- School Title
- Meaningful Words
- Fischer’s Reactions
- Typical Sugars
- Fischer’s Awards
- Sweet Experiment
- Chemicals in My Body
- To Dye For
- My Chemical
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Link will appear as Emil Fischer Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, August 4, 2020
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