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Table of Contents
Greek Mythology was part of the religion in Ancient Greece. Stories about gods and goddesses and heroes and monsters were an important part of everyday life. They explained everything from religious rituals to the weather, and they gave meaning to the world people saw around them.
See the fact file below for more information on the Greek Gods or alternatively, you can download our 26-page Greek Gods worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- Greek mythology was used to explain the environment, the natural phenomena and the days, months, and seasons.
- Myths were also connected to religion and explained the origin and lives of the gods, where humans had come from, and where it was going after death.
- They were used to retell historical events so that people could maintain contact with their ancestors, the wars they fought, and the places they explored.
- Without widespread literacy before, the passing on of Greek myths was first done orally, probably by Minoan and Mycenaean bards from the 18th century BCE onwards.
- Soon, the creation of poems in Ionia and the celebrated poems of Homer and Hesiod around the 8th century BCE was developed.
- Further, mythology was presented in written form:
- Homer’s Iliad recounts the final stages of the Trojan War – between Greeks and their eastern neighbors in the late Bronze Age (1800-1200 BCE)
- Odyssey recounts the voyage home of the hero Odysseus following the Trojan War.
- Hesiod’s Theogony gives a genealogy of the gods, and his Works and Days describes the creation of man.
- Besides literature, mythical scenes decorate ceramics and have spread the myths to a wider audience.
- The myths continued to be popular and major buildings such as the Parthenon at Athens, the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, and the Temple to Apollo at Delphi were decorated.
- In the 5th century BCE, theatre performances regarding the mythology blossomed; in the works of the three tragedians Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.
- In the 6th century BCE, skepticism and even rejection of the myths began with the pre-Socratic philosophers who searched for a more scientific explanation for phenomena and events.
- Finally, the first historians Herodotus and Thucydides documented accurately and recorded a less subjective view of events to introduce the modern subject of history.
- The twelve Titans, children of Uranus (Heaven) and Gê (Earth), were the group of gods immediately preceding the Olympian gods.
- However, the Olympians defeated the Titans in a battle — the Titanomachy.
- It was said that before this world came into existence, a confused mass of shapeless elements was called Chaos.
- Thus came into being the two first great primeval deities of the Greeks, Uranus, and Ge or Gaea.
- Uranus and Gaea produced two distinctly different races of beings called Giants and Titans.
- Along with the two were Erebus (Darkness) and Nyx (Night); the cheerful light of heaven and the bright smiles of earth.
- Also called the Uranides, the 12 titans are Cronus, Oceanus, Iapetus, Hyperion, Crius, Coeus, Rhea, Tethys, Theia, Phoebe, Themis, and Mnemosyne.
- Other deities were four Iapetionides; Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius.
- Many of the children and grandchildren of the Titans also bore the name of Titan. These included the Hyperionides (Helius, Selene, and Eos), the Coeides (Leto, Asteria, and Hecate), and the Creionides (Pallas, Astraeus, and Perses).
- The Olympians gained their supremacy in a war between gods in which Zeus led his siblings to victory over the Titans.
- However, not all were sent to Tartarus. Some remained in their status and became consorts to Zeus.
- Zeus – King of the gods and ruler of Mount Olympus; god of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, and justice. He was the youngest child of the Titans Cronus and Rhea.
- Hera – Queen of the gods and the goddess of marriage, women, childbirth, and family.
- Poseidon – God of the seas, water, storms, hurricanes, earthquakes, and horses.
- Demeter – Goddess of the harvest, fertility, agriculture, nature, and the seasons.
- Athena – Goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare. The daughter of Zeus who rose from her father’s head fully grown and in full battle armor.
- Apollo – God of light, the sun, prophecy, philosophy, truth, inspiration, poetry, music, arts, medicine, healing, and plague.
- Artemis – Goddess of the hunt, the wilderness, virginity, the moon, archery, childbirth, protection, and plague.
- Ares – God of war, violence, bloodshed, and manly virtues. All the other gods despised him.
- Aphrodite – Goddess of love, pleasure, passion, procreation, fertility, beauty, and desire.
- Hephaestus – Master blacksmith and craftsman of the gods; god of the forge, craftsmanship, invention, fire, and volcanoes.
- Hermes – Messenger of the gods; god of travel, commerce, communication, borders, eloquence, diplomacy, thieves, and games.
- Hestia – Goddess of the hearth, fire, and the right ordering of domesticity and the family; she was one of the original twelve Olympians.
MINOR GREEK DEITIES
- Sky deities are gods and goddesses of the light, sun, moon, and winds. They are deities that control the celestial bodies and the weather.
- Hyperion, Helius, Apollo, and Phanes were listed as sun gods.
- Moon goddesses were Phoebe, Artemis, Selene, Hecate, Nemesis, Eurynome, and mortals Dictynna and Pasiphae.
- Water and Sea deities include Pontus, Nereus, Phorcys, Oceanus, Tethys and the river goddess Styx.
- The earth deities are associated with the land, fertility, and agriculture which includes: Hecate, Zagreus, Cybele, Pan, Silenus, and Aristaeüs.
- Other deities of various attributes are also identified:
- Metis – Goddess of wisdom and prudence. She is the first wife of Zeus.
- Hebe – Goddess of youth and spring.
- Eileithyia – Goddess of childbirth. She was also the patroness of midwives.
- Iris was a virgin goddess. Iris was also the goddess of the rainbow.
- Eris – Goddess of discord and strife.
- The Muses are the goddesses who inspired men and women; they were proficient in arts, literature, and science. They were Calliope, Cleio, Erato, Euterpe, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thaleia, and Urania.
- The Graces were the personification of beauty and grace. They are Charis or Aglaea (“Splendour”), Euphrosyne (“Mirth”), and Thalia or Pasithea (“Good Cheer”).
- Nemesis – Goddess of divine retribution for evil deeds or undeserved good fortune.
- Horae – They were originally personifications of the seasons: spring, summer, and winter.
- Moerae – Goddesses of fate: Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos.
- Tyche – Goddess of fortune.
- Nike – Goddess of victory. Nike and her brothers – Zelus, Kratos, and Bia were the children of the Titan Pallas and the Oceanid Styx.
- Paeëon (Paeeon) was the god of healing.
- Asclepius – God of healing.
- Circe was a sorceress. Her island was guarded by men who she had turned into wild animals.
- Despoina – Goddess of horses.
- Enyo was the Greek goddess of war.
- Ate – Goddess of folly and moral blindness.
- Deimus was the god of fear. Phobos was the god of panic. Ananke was the personification of fate or necessity
- Demigods are part god and part mortal. They are more powerful when compared to normal mortals; hence, they are also known as half gods.
- Achilles, Aeneas, Amphion, Arcas, Asclepius, Athis, Bellerophon, Dardanus, Dionysius, Harmonia, Heracles, Helen, Hippolyta, Iasus, Memnon, Orion, Orpheus, Penthesilea, Perseus, Polydeuces, Theseus, Tityos, Zethes, and Zethus.
Greek Gods Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Greek Gods across 26 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Greek Gods worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Greek Mythology which was part of the religion in Ancient Greece. Stories about gods and goddesses and heroes and monsters were an important part of everyday life. They explained everything from religious rituals to the weather, and they gave meaning to the world people saw around them.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Mt. Olympus
- The Olympians
- The Titans
- Greek Heroes
- The Good, the Neutral and the Bad
- Theirs and Ours
- The Greek Deity
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Link will appear as Greek Gods Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, August 8, 2019
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.