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Henry III of England was also known as Henry of Winchester. He was born on October 1, 1207, and lived until November 16, 1272. He was the King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke Aquitaine from 1216 until his death in 1272.
See the fact file below for more information on the Henry III or alternatively, you can download our 22-page Henry III worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- Little information is known about Henry III’s early life.
- The fourth king of the House of Plantagenet was born in Winchester Castle on October 1, 1207.
- Henry was the eldest son of King John and Isabella Angoulême. In his initial years, a wet nurse looked after Henry.
- The nurse’s name was Ellen. She lived in the south of England and probably had close ties with his mother.
- Henry was the eldest of four legitimate siblings. Those siblings were Richard, Joanz Isabella, and Eleanor.
- They also had various illegitimate siblings.
- Henry’s education was entrusted to the Bishop of Winchester, Peter Des Roches, in 1212.
- Des Roches directed Henry to receive military training by Philip D’Aubigny.
- Ralph of St. Samson probably taught Henry to ride a horse.
- Henry was named after his grandfather, Henry II, who is recognized for building a vast network of lands. These lands spread from Scotland and Wales through England, across the English Channel to the territories of Normandy, Brittany, Maine, and Anjou in northwest France, onto Poitou and Gascony in the southwest.
- John, Henry’s father, died on the night of October 18, 1215. Henry was only a nine-year old boy, but he was still an heir to John’s throne.
CORONATION AND REIGN
- When King John died, he appointed a council of thirteen executors to help the young Henry reclaim the kingdom.
- King John also requested on his deathbed that Henry should be placed under the guardianship of William Marshall, one of the famous knights in the kingdom of England.
- On October 28, 1215, Henry III was crowned. He was anointed by Sylvester, Bishop of Worcester, and Simon, Bishop of Exeter. Peter Des Roches crowned the young king.
- The crown used in this coronation was a simple gold corolla that belonged to Queen Isabella, since the royal crown may have been either sold or lost during the civil war.
- Henry III had a second coronation on May 17, 1220, at Westminster Abbey.
- The initial years of King Henry were full of difficulties, since over half of England was occupied by rebels.
- King John’s significant possessions were also controlled by France.
- He was crowned during the First Barons’ War.
- Luckily, Henry III received substantial support from Cardinal Guala, resulting in winning the civil war and punishing the rebels.
- King Henry III performed a homage to the Papacy, recognizing Pope Honorius III as his feudal lord. This strengthened the ties between England and the Papacy.
- Pope Honorius III declared Henry as his vassal and ward, allowing the legate to have complete authority to protect Henry and England.
- Henry also declared himself as a crusader by taking the cross in order to be entitled to special protection from Rome.
- In 1217, Henry’s forces, along with the leadership of William Marshal, defeated the rebel barons at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
- Henry’s powers became limited as he promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which protected the rights of great barons.
- Hubert de Burgh and Peter Des Roches dominated King Henry’s early rule, as they were responsible for re-establishing royal authority after the war.
- King Henry had failed to invade and reconquer the provinces of France in 1230, lands which his father once possessed.
- Richard Marshal, William Marshall’s son, led a revolt that broke out in 1232.
- The revolt ended in a peace settlement that was negotiated by the Church.
- The end of this revolt was the beginning of Henry’s personal rule.
- Henry III travelled less and invested more in his favorite palaces and castles.
- Henry III married Eleanor of Provence and had five children. Henry III was known to be a pious or spiritual king, as he held lavish religious ceremonies and gave generously to charities.
- Henry III adopted Edward the Confessor as his patron saint. He again waged war against France to reclaim its provinces in 1242, but this led to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg.
- Henry’s rule became unpopular by 1258.
- In 1259, Henry enacted a peace treaty with France, returning the rights of other lands to King Louis IX of France.
- The Second Barons’ War broke out in 1263.
- In 1264, Henry was defeated and taken prisoner.
- He was freed the following year by his eldest son, Edward.
- Henry’s later progress had various restrictions, including further suppression from Jews.
- Henry became ill in 1270.
- He died on November 16, 1272. His tomb is located in Westminster Abbey in London.
Henry III Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Henry III across 22 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Henry III worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about Henry III of England who was also known as Henry of Winchester. He was born on October 1, 1207, and lived until November 16, 1272. He was the King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke Aquitaine from 1216 until his death in 1272.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Henry III Facts
- Brief Biography
- False Date
- Henry’s Relations
- The House of Plantagenet
- Important Events
- Crown Design
- Like Father, Like Son?
- Opinion Collection
- Picture Narrative
- If I Were a Monarch
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Link will appear as Henry III Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, April 21, 2020
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.