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John Bardeen was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Physics two times. He was known for being one of the key figures in the invention of the transistor and for the development of the fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity.
See the fact file below for more information on the John Bardeen or alternatively, you can download our 23-page John Bardeen worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
- John Bardeen was born on May 23, 1908 in Madison, Wisconsin.
- John Bardeen was the son of Charles Russell Bardeen, who was a physician and anatomist and known to be the first dean of the University of Wisconsin Medical School.
- In 1923, Bardeen graduated from the University High School at Madison.
- In 1923, Bardeen entered the University of Wisconsin.
- In 1928, Bardeen received his degree in electrical engineering.
- In 1929, Bardeen received his Master of Science degree after completing his thesis under the supervision of Leo J. Peters.
- From 1930 to 1933, Bardeen worked at the Gulf Research Laboratories, the research arm of the Gulf Oil Corporation. Bardeen worked as one of the researchers for the development of methods for the interpretation of magnetic and gravitational surveys.
- Later on, Bardeen entered Princeton University as a graduate student in mathematics.
- Bardeen studied mathematics and physics under the supervision of Eugene Wigner, a physicist.
- In 1935, Bardeen was offered a position as Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard University.
- In 1936, Bardeen received his Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Princeton University.
- During World War II, Bardeen worked at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory where he headed the group that was working on magnetic mines and torpedoes.
- In October 1945, Bardeen started working at Bell Labs.
- Bardeen became a member of a solid-state physics group, headed by William Shockley and Stanley Morgan.
- On December 23, 1947, Bardeen and Walter Brattain succeeded in creating a point-contact transistor which achieved amplification.
- Shockley publicly took credit for the invention of transistor.
- In 1951, Bardeen left Bell Labs.
THEORY OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
- In 1951, after leaving Bell Labs, Bardeen joined the engineering and physics faculties at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- Bardeen took on the position as professor of electrical engineering and of physics.
- Bardeen dealt with both experimental and theoretical aspects of semiconductors.
- Bardeen also researched about theoretical aspects of macroscopic quantum systems, specifically superconductivity and quantum liquids.
- In 1957, Bardeen, in collaboration with Leon Cooper and his student, John Robert Schrieffer, proposed the standard theory of superconductivity also known as Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) Theory.
- The theory starts from the assumption that there is attraction between electrons that may overcome the Coulomb repulsion.
- The theory was able to give an approximation for the quantum-mechanical many-body state of the system of electrons inside the metal.
NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS
- In 1956, Bardeen received a Nobel Prize in Physics, together with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for their “researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect.”
- In 1972, Bardeen received his second Nobel Prize in Physics, together with Leon Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for their “jointly developed theory of superconductivity, also known as BCS theory.”
- Bardeen received the Stuart Ballantine Medal from the Franklin Institute in 1952, National Medal of Science in 1965, IEEE Medal of Honor in 1971, Franklin Medal in 1975, Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977, and Third Century Award from the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1988.
- In 1959, Bardeen was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
- In 1973, Bardeen was elected as a Foreign Member of the Royal Society.
- On July 18, 1938, Bardeen married Jane Maxwell who he had met during his visit to Pittsburgh.
- Bardeen enjoyed playing golf and going on picnics with his family.
- On January 30, 1991, at the age of 82, Bardeen died of heart disease at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
- Bardeen’s remains are buried in Forest Hill Cemetery in Madison, Wisconsin, together with the remains of his wife.
- The two had three children: James, William, and Elizabeth.
- The engineering quadrangle at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is named the Bardeen Quad in honor of Professor Bardeen.
- On March 6, 2008, Bardeen was honored on a United States postage stamp as part of the “American Scientists” series designed by Victor Stabin.
- Bardeen was also an important adviser to the Xerox Corporation.
- Bardeen gave most of the money he received from his Nobel Prize awards to fund the Fritz London Memorial Lectures at Duke University.
- Bardeen was able to publish articles in Physical Review Letters, a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and Physics Today, a membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics.
John Bardeen Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the John Bardeen across 23 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use John Bardeen worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about John Bardeen who was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Physics two times. He was known for being one of the key figures in the invention of the transistor and for the development of the fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- John Bardeen Facts
- Bardeen Who?
- Order Them
- The Transistor
- Great Minds
- Match Three
- Story Time
- Dear Bardeen
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