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Mary, Queen of Scots, cousin of Elizabeth I became queen six days after her birth when her father, King James V of Scotland, died. She was best known for her claims to the English throne and rivalry with England’s Elizabeth I.
See the fact file below for more information on the Mary Queen of Scots or alternatively, you can download our 20-page Mary Queen of Scots worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
EARLY LIFE AND BECOMING QUEEN
- Mary Stuart was the only legitimate daughter of King James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise of France. At six days old, Mary instantly became Queen of Scotland after the death of her father in 1542.
- Because of her inability to rule, her mother, French Mary of Guise acted on her behalf. Young Mary spent most her childhood in France.
- In order to ease tensions between the English and Scottish monarchy, eight-month old Mary was betrothed to Prince Edward, Henry VIII’s son. In order to strengthen the agreement, Henry VIII, King of England, signed the Treaty of Greenwich which aimed to unite the two kingdoms of England and Scotland through the marriage of Mary and Prince Edward.
- However, the agreement was called off by the Catholic Church. In 1548, Mary was sent to France and lived with the daughters and wives of the King of France. She was then betrothed to Francis, Dauphin of France.
- A stronger alliance between France and Scotland was created after the marriage of Mary and Francis in 1558. After a year Francis was crowned as ]King Francis II, he died. At the age of 18, Mary was widowed and returned to her home country, Scotland.
- With her return, Mary witnessed a dominant Protestant Scotland guided by the Presbyterian theologian, John Knox. Under the guidance of William Maitland and Lord James, Mary initially ruled Scotland with success.
- In 1565, Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, her Catholic second cousin. Her second marriage created tensions between the monarch and the Scottish nobles. As a result, their marriage began to collapse. Lord Darnley died in 1566.
- Some suspected that Mary, Queen of Scots conspired the assassination of Lord Darnley with the help of her Italian secretary, David Rizzo.
- In 1566, Mary gave birth to a son, James. In 1567, the Queen married Earl of Bothwell who later raised arms against the nobles of the court at the Battle of Carberry Hill. As a result, Mary was forced by Scottish nobles to abdicate the throne while Bothwell escaped to Scandinavia.
- In 1568, Mary was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle, while her infant son, James was crowned as king of Scotland. Mary managed to escape the castle and took refuge in the south of England.
RIVALRY WITH ELIZABETH I
- When Elizabeth I was crowned as the Queen of England, the Catholic Church argued that Mary, a devout Catholic was the legitimate heir to the throne. Unfortunately, it began tensions between the two queens.
- Mary followed her destiny and began to assert her claims to the English throne which threatened Elizabeth I’s position. She was associated to a number of assassination plots against Elizabeth I as she was the next legitimate heir to the throne. Mary was then imprisoned by her cousin and put under surveillance for 19 years.
- As a political prisoner, Mary was moved from castle to castle.
- Mary’s letters were later used to put her on trial for adultery and as an unfit mother. The collection became known as the casket letters.
- In 1585, a personal letter of Mary’s was intercepted by the English Queen’s spymaster, Francis Walsingham. Walsingham was able to associate Mary with the Babington Plot which intended to assassinate Elizabeth I and free Mary Queen of Scots with the support of foreign invasion.
- The unfaithful years of Mary began when she was exiled to Fotheringhay Castle and was convicted for treason despite her denial of the crime.
- In October 1586, Mary was sentenced to death and was beheaded on February 8, 1587 upon the signing of her death warrant by Queen Elizabeth I.
- Initially, Mary’s body was buried in Peterborough Cathedral, but was later exhumed by her son, James VI and moved to King Henry VII Chapel in Westminster Abbey in 1612.
- In 1603, after the death of Queen Elizabeth I, Mary’s son became James I, King of Scotland and England.,
Mary Queen of Scots Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Mary Queen of Scots across 20 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Mary Queen of Scots worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about Mary, Queen of Scots, cousin of Elizabeth I who became queen six days after her birth when her father, King James V of Scotland, died. She was best known for her claims to the English throne and rivalry with England’s Elizabeth I.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Mary, Queen of Scots Facts
- The Queen of Scots
- The Royal Highness
- Crime and Punishment Crossword
- The House of Tudor
- The Trial
- Women of Power
- Fact or Fiction
- The Royal Kingdoms
- The Red Queen
- The Dark Morning
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Link will appear as Mary Queen of Scots Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, March 11, 2019
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.