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Sir Winston Churchill was an English military leader, writer and prime minister. He was known for his speeches and strong alliances made with the United States and the Soviet Union during World War II.
See the fact file below for more information on Winston Churchill or alternatively, you can download our 26-page Winston Churchill worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
Early Life, Military and Writing Career
- Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born on November 30, 1874, to Lord Randolph Churchill, a statesman, and Jeanette Jerome, an American socialite.
- Young Winston spent some of his childhood years in Dublin, Ireland, where his father worked under the tutelage of his grandfather, John Spencer Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough.
- In April 1888, he entered Harrow School and joined Harrow Rifle Corps.
- As a student, Churchill enjoyed history and English composition but inept in foreign languages, especially Latin.
- Churchill took three tries to pass the exam for the British Royal Military College and eventually graduated 20th in his class of 130.
- While at boarding school, Churchill wrote letters to his mother to visit him. Not seeing both his parents developed a distant relationship. When he was 21, his father died.
- In 1895, he joined the Fourth Queen’s Own Hussars and served in the Indian northwest frontier. He wrote reports for the Pioneer Mail and the Daily Telegraph. In addition, Churchill also published two books, namely The Story of the Malakand Field Force in 1898 and The River War in 1899.
- Upon publishing his second book, Churchill left the army to work as a war correspondent for the Morning Post. He was present at the Boer War in South Africa and was held hostage by the Boers. Churchill eventually escaped to Mozambique, a Portuguese territory during those times, and returned to London with his experiences chronicled in his book London to Ladysmith via Pretoria (1900).
- Following his father into politics, Churchill became a member of Parliament in the Conservative Party for Oldham, Manchester, in 1900. After four years, he switched to the Liberal Party as they supported social reform and justice.
- By 1908, he was elected a member of Parliament and was appointed as president of the Board of Trade under the prime minister’s cabinet.
- As president of the Board of Trade, Churchill introduced reforms for the prison system, minimum wage, and others in labor. In addition, he was known for supporting the People’s Budget, which taxed wealthy people to pay for newly established social welfare programs. It easily passed the House of Commons but was defeated in the House of Lords before being passed in 1910.
- After a year, he helped modernize the British Navy by ordering additional warships to be built with oil-fired engines instead of coal. Moreover, Churchill became the first to set up the Royal Navy Air Service. For his contributions, he was named First Lord of Admiralty.
- At the end of 1915, Churchill resigned from government after the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli (which inspired ANZAC Day).
- He rejoined the British Army and commanded the Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front.
- By 1917 until the end of WWI, he was appointed Minister of Munitions.
- Under Prime Minister Lloyd George, Churchill served as Minister of War and as Air and Colonial Secretary in Iraq.
- In 1922, he was defeated as a member of Parliament under the Liberal Party. As a result, he rejoined the Conservative Party and served as chancellor of the Exchequer.
- In 1929, after the defeat of the Conservative government, he faced his political wilderness years and focused on his writing. He wrote A History of English-Speaking Peoples, which was published two decades later.
- On September 3, 1939, Britain declared war on Germany. Churchill became a member of the War Cabinet and chair of the Military Coordinating Committee.
- In May 1940, a debate heated Parliament after the Norwegian crisis, which led to dismay towards Prime Minister Chamberlain. On May 10, 1940, King George VI appointed Churchill as the new prime minister and Minister of Defense.
- At the time of his appointment, the German Army began its Western offensive, invading the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France and Britain.
- On June 18, 1940, Prime Minister Churchill delivered his speech to the House of Commons declaring the Battle of Britain.
- As Britain stood alone against the German onslaught, Churchill forged an alliance with the United States and the Soviet Union. By March 1941, he was able to order war goods from the United States on credit through the Lend-Lease Act. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had good relationship with Churchill since the 1930s.
- In December 1941, the U.S. officially entered WWII. With the Allied Powers led by Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin, they eventually won the war in 1945.
- Prime Minister Churchill continued to work with Roosevelt and Stalin post-world war.
- After WWII, the Allies’ efforts to develop a united strategy against the Axis Powers and post-world war rehabilitation resulted in the establishment of the United Nations.
- Despite Germany’s surrender on May 7, 1945, Churchill was defeated in the election two months later. He soon became the leader of the opposition party. By March 1946, he went to the United States and made his iconic speech “Iron Curtain”, regarding the Soviet Union’s domination in Eastern Europe.
- In October 1951, Churchill was elected as prime minister for the second time and introduced reforms like the Mines and Quarries Act of 1954 and the Housing Repairs and Rent Act of 1955.
- It was during Churchill’s term that Britain could no longer sustain its colonial rule over the colonies of Kenya and Malaya.
- Due to poor health, he retired as prime minister in 1955 but remained a member of Parliament until 1964.
- As early as 1941, Churchill began experiencing heart attacks and endured strokes in 1953. On January 24, 1965, at the age of 90, Churchill died at his home in London after suffering a severe stroke.
- In 1953, Prime Minister Churchill received the Nobel Prize for Literature, and at the same time knighted by Queen Elizabeth the II.
- Some believed that Churchill suffered from Alzheimer’s disease later in his life.
- During his lifetime, he published a number of books, while some were posthumously printed.
Winston Churchill Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Winston Churchill across 26 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Winston Churchill worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Sir Winston Churchill who was an English military leader, writer and prime minister. He was known for his speeches and strong alliances made with the United States and the Soviet Union during World War II.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Winston Churchill Facts
- The British Bulldog
- Britain’s Famous
- World War Leaders
- British Empire in Action
- Behind the Iron Curtain
- World War II
- Churchill and Britain
- British Politics
- In Books and Screens
- News Today!
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