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Pompeii was an ancient Roman city located in the modern comune of Pompeii near Naples in the Campania region of Italy. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.
See the fact file below for more information on the Pompeii or alternatively, you can download our 20-page Pompeii worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- Pompeii is a preserved ancient Roman city in Campania, Italy, 14 miles (23 km) southeast of Naples, at the southeastern base of Mount Vesuvius.
- It was built on a spur formed by a prehistoric lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarnus (modern Sarno) River. Pompeii was destroyed, together with Herculaneum, Stabiae, Torre Annunziata, and other communities, by the violent eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE.
- The circumstances of their destruction preserved their remains as a unique document of Greco-Roman life. Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Torre Annunziata were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997.
- Pompeii is first mentioned in history in 310 BCE, when, during the Second Samnite War, a Roman fleet landed at the Sarnus port of Pompeii and from there made an unsuccessful attack on the neighboring city of Nuceria.
- At the end of the Samnite wars, Campania became a part of the Roman confederation, and the cities became “allies” of Rome. But they were not completely subjugated and Romanized until the time of the Social War.
- Pompeii joined the Italians in their revolt against Rome in this war and was besieged by the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 89 BCE. After the war, Pompeii, along with the rest of Italy south of the Po River, received Roman citizenship.
- However, as a punishment for Pompeii’s part in the war, a colony of Roman veterans was established there under Publius Sulla, the nephew of the Roman general.
- Latin replaced Oscan as the official language, and the city soon became Romanized in institutions, architecture, and culture. A riot in the amphitheatre at Pompeii between the Pompeians and the Nucerians, in 59 CE, is reported by the Roman historian Tacitus.
- An earthquake in 62 CE did great damage in both Pompeii and Herculaneum. The cities had not yet recovered from this catastrophe when final destruction overcame them 17 years later.
- Vesuvius, in 2013, was 4,203 feet (1,281 meters) tall. After each eruption, the size of the cone changes.
- The volcano also has a semicircular ridge called Mount Somma that rises to 3,714 feet (1,132 m).
- The valley between the cone and Mount Somma is called Valle del Gigante or Giant’s Valley. Mount Vesuvius is considered to be one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of its proximity to the city of Naples and the surrounding towns on the nearby slopes.
- The volcano is classed as a complex stratovolcano because its eruptions typically involve explosive eruptions as well as pyroclastic flows. A pyroclastic flow is a high-density mix of hot lava blocks, pumice, ash, and volcanic gas, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
- Vesuvius and other Italian volcanoes, such as Campi Flegrei and Stromboli, are part of the Campanian volcanic arc. The Campanian arc sits on a tectonic boundary where the African plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian plate.
- Under Vesuvius, scientists have detected a tear in the African plate. This “slab window” allows heat from the Earth’s mantle layer to melt the rock of the African plate building up pressure that causes violent explosive eruptions. In the past, Mount Vesuvius has had a roughly 20-year eruption cycle, but the last serious eruption was in 1944.
- The extent of the archaeological sites makes them of the greatest importance, for they provide a unique source of information about so many aspects of social, economic, religious, and political life of the ancient world.
- The many well-preserved house shrines give a hitherto unexpected picture of the vitality of religion in the family. The bakeries, complete with mills, kneading machines, and ovens, some still containing loaves of bread, show how this staple of everyday life was produced.
- Pompeii was a busy port town that exported products throughout the Mediterranean region. Merchants and tradesmen found food and lodging near the city gates and the Forum.
- Since 1944, there have been hundreds of minor earthquakes in the region around Mount Vesuvius. The most serious earthquake rocked Naples in October 1999.
- The magnitude-3.6 quake was felt as far as 15 miles (24 km) from the base of the volcano and was of the same magnitude as a quake that occurred 17 years prior to the last truly major explosion that devastated Naples.
- In 2016, excavations on the outskirts of Pompeii revealed more victims of the volcanic eruption. Archaeologists discovered the remains of four people, including one teenage girl, in the ruins of a shop, according to a statement from the Soprintendenza Pompei, the Italian authority in charge of managing the ancient site.
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Pompeii across 20 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Pompeii worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Pompeii which was an ancient Roman city located in the modern comune of Pompeii near Naples in the Campania region of Italy. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Pompeii in Italy Facts
- Fascinating Facts
- Pompeii Timeline
- Two Worlds
- When in Italy
- Fix Me! I’m Broken!
- Breaking News!
- Eruption Pic!
- Eruption Hazards!
- Pompeii and the Six Thinking Hats
- Pompeii Essay
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Link will appear as Pompeii Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, October 15, 2019
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.