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One of the Five Pillars of Islam, the Hajj is an Islamic pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia, which every adult Muslim must practice at least once in his or her life. A mandatory sacred duty, Hajj starts on the 7th day of Dhū al-Hijjah and ends on the 12th day.
See the fact file below for more information on the Hajj or alternatively, you can download our 20-page Hajj worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
WHAT IS HAJJ?
- Hajj borrowed its name from the Arabic word حج [ħædʒ, ħæɡ], related to the Hebrew word חג ḥag [χaɡ], which translates to “holiday.”
- The definition of the verb is “to circle, to go around.”
- Circumambulation, the act of circling a sacred object or idol, is practiced by the Jews in the Hakafot ritual during Hoshanah Rabbah.
- Hebrews offer a sacrificial feast during festivals. Just like in Islam, adult Muslims who perform the Hajj to Mecca need to go around the Kaaba and present sacrifices, such as food objects, or lives of animals.
- Hajj literally means “heading to a place for the sake of visiting.” In Islam, it pertains to the journey to Kaaba, the “House of Allah,” in the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
- The current practice of Hajj was founded by Muhammad; however, based on the Qur’an, fundamental elements of Hajj are patterned after the time of Abraham.
- Based from the customs of Islam, God asked Abraham to leave his family alone in the desert of ancient Mecca. Due to thirst, his wife, Hajar, hopelessly ran seven times between the two hills of Safa and Marwah, but was unable to find a water source. She saw her son, Ishmael, digging with his leg and a water fountain emerged underneath his foot. Afterwards, Abraham, together with Ishmael, was ordered to build the Kaaba and encouraged the people to perform the pilgrimage there.
- During jahiliyyah, also known as the pre-Islamic Arabia, pagan idols encircled the Kaaba. In 630 AD, Muhammad guided his followers from Medina to Mecca, sanitized the Kaaba by ruining all the pagan idols, and then dedicated the building to Allah. In 632 AD, Muhammad did his only and final sacred journey with thousands of believers, and asked them to follow the rites of Hajj. Since then, the Hajj became one of the five pillars of Islam.
- The condition of being physically and financially capable of doing the Hajj is called “istita’ah,” and a Muslim who achieves this state is called a “mustati.”
- Ihram. When muslims arrive at the right Miqat (principal boundary point), they are supposed to have reached the sacred state known as Ihram. Males are required to wear two white seamless clothes – one wrapped around the waist extending below the knee, and the other hanging over the left shoulder with a knot on the right side. Women are allowed to wear any ordinary dress that conforms to the Islamic condition of public dress, as long as the hands and face are uncovered.
- First day day of Hajj. This occurs on the 8th Dhū al-Hijjah wherein Muslims are reminded of their obligations. Upon arriving at the Sacred Mosque, known as the Al-Masjid Al-Harām, joiners show an arrival “tawaf” which engages pilgrims to walk seven times in a counterclockwise direction around the Kaaba. Usually, they kiss or touch the Black Stone (Hajar al-Aswad). Eating is not allowed but drinking is permitted.
- After Tawaf, two Rak’ah prayers are offered at the Place of Abraham (Maqam Ibrahim). This is also followed by sa’ay wherein pilgrims run or walk seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah.
- Mina. After reciting the morning prayer known as the Fajr, believers go to Mina, a place near Mecca in Makkah, where they spend the rest of the day. The next day, they proceed to Arafat.
- Second day of Hajj. This takes place on the 9th Dhū al-Hijjah, also known as the Day of Arafah, which marks the Day of Hajj.
- Arafat. Muslims reach a barren land about 20 kilometers east of Mecca, called the Arafat. They perform a contemplative vigil, contemplating on their past sins, asking for mercy from Allah, and listening to the sermon from the Imam or the Islamic leaders. Pilgrims stay in Arafat from noon till sunset doing the wuquf (standing before God), which is known to be one of the most important rites of Hajj.
- They believe that a pilgrim’s Hajj is void if they do not devote their afternoon on Arafat.
- Muzdalifah. After sunset, muslims proceed to Muzdalifah, an open area near Mecca. Upon arrival, they should recite the Maghrib (sunset) and Isha prayer jointly, and devote the night to praying and sleeping on the ground. They also pick up pebbles that will be used for the next day’s ritual of the stoning of the Devil named Shaytan.
- Third day of Hajj.This occurs on the 10th Dhū al-Hijjah where pilgrims spend the night at Mina.
- Ramy al-Jamarat. Back at Mina, Muslims perform the iconic stoning of the devil where they throw seven stones from sunrise to sunset at the biggest of the three pillars known as the Jamrat al-Aqabah. Animal sacrifices are made, along with another significant rite of Hajj which is the shaving of the head for males or trimming of the hair (Halak) for females.
- Tawaf Ziyarat. On the next day, they go back to the Sacred Mosque for Tawaf al-ifadah and spend the night back at Mina.
- Fourth Day of Hajj. This takes place on the 11tth Dhū al-Hijjah where Muslims throw again seven pebbles at each of the three pillars in Mina, from noon to sunset.
- Fifth Day of Hajj. This occurs on the 12tth Dhū al-Hijjah. Muslims still perform the stoning of the pillars and may proceed to Mecca before sunset on the 12th.
- Last Day at Mina. 13tth Dhū al-Hijjah, Muslims must perform the stoning of the devil ritual again on this day before going back to Mecca, only if they were unable to leave on the fifth day before sunset.
- Tawaf al-Wadaa. Lastly, before leaving Mecca, Muslims do a farewell tawaf known as the Tawaf al-Wadaa. They go around the Kaaba seven times in a counterclockwise motion while attempting to kiss or touch the Kaaba.
- Hajj Ifrad. Also known as isolated Hajj wherein pilgrims only perform the Hajj. Muslims who practice the Ifrad are called Mufrid. This type is exclusive for those who reside within the boundaries of Masjid al-Haram. They wear Ihram with the purpose of solely performing the Hajj.
- Hajj Qiran. This type is also called accompanied Hajj. It is for Muslims who do not reside near Masjid al-Haram. Pilgrims who wear the Ihram should have the intention to practice both Umrah and Hajj, and both Islamic pilgrimages should be performed in the same Ihram. A pilgrim is not allowed to leave Ihram until both Umrah and Hajj are completed.
- Hajj Tamattu. Also called Mutamatti, meaning enjoyable Hajj. Pilgrims overseas usually perform this type of Hajj since it also includes the Umrah which should be practiced before the Hajj. A pilgrim doing the Hajj Tamattu should be wear two different Ihrams – one for each Islamic pilgrimage.
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Hajj across 20 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Hajj worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Hajj which is an Islamic pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia, which every adult Muslim must practice at least once in his or her life. A mandatory sacred duty, Hajj starts on the 7th day of Dhū al-Hijjah and ends on the 12th day.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Hajj Facts
- Five Pillars of Islam
- Hajj Basics
- 12 Rites
- The Sacred Journey Facts
- Hajj Dress Code
- Types of Hajj
- Ask Yourself
- Test Your Knowledge
- Hajj vs Umrah
- Hajj Scoop
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Link will appear as Hajj Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, February 6, 2020
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.