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Aerodynamics is the way air moves around things. The rules of aerodynamics explain how an airplane is able to fly. Anything that moves through air reacts to aerodynamics. A rocket blasting off the launch pad and a kite in the sky react to aerodynamics. Aerodynamics even acts on cars, since air flows around cars.
See the fact file below for more information on the aerodynamics or alternatively, you can download our 27-page Aerodynamics worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
HISTORY OF AERODYNAMICS
- Aerodynamics was known but not studied as an exact science in the early times. The famous legends of Icarus and Daedalus showed that Ancient Greeks and our ancestors used this concept.
- Soon, the fundamental concepts of aerodynamics, such as continuum, drag and pressure were introduced by Aristotle and Archimedes.
- In 1726, Sir Isaac Newton composed a theory of air resistance, making him the father of aerodynamics.
- In 1738, Dutch-Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli described the relations between pressure, density, and flow velocity in his paper Hydrodynamica. His principle provides method to calculate aerodynamic lift.
- In 1757, Leonhard Euler published his equation calculating the compressible and incompressible flows of fluids. It is considered among the most difficult to solve of the equations of fluids.
- Then in 1799, Sir George Cayley identified the four forces of the aerodynamic flight: weight, lift, drag, and thrust, and the relationships between them.
- 72 years later, Francis Herbert Wenham built the first wind tunnel, enabling him to calculate the precise forces of aerodynamic forces.
- The demonstration of the first flight inspired many scientists to create independent theories of the circulation of the fluids flow to lift. They became interested in the air compressibility at speeds closer or exceeding the speed of sound. Then, the supersonic flight barrier was broken in 1947, with the Bell X-1 aircraft.
HOW IT WORKS
- Engineers apply the principles of aerodynamics to the designs of many different things, including bridges and buildings. However, the primary application of aerodynamics is on aircraft and automobiles production.
- The four forces of flight are drag, lift, thrust, and weight. These forces make the object move faster or slower and move up and down. The force exerted changes how the object moves through the air.
- Lift – Lift is the opposite of weight since it lets something move up. Everything that flies must have lift that has greater force than the weight. For example, a hot air balloon has lift because the lighter hot air rises and carries the balloon with it; a helicopter’s lift comes from the rotor blades at the top of the helicopter and the lift for an airplane comes from its wings.
- Drag – This is a force that tries to slow something down. It is easier to walk through air than through water because water causes more drag. Also, most round surfaces have less drag than flat ones and narrow surfaces have less drag than wide ones.
- Weight – This force comes from the Earth’s gravity pulling down on objects. An aircraft needs something to push towards the opposite direction from gravity to fly. The force of a push depends on the weight of an object.
- Thrust – Thrust is the opposite of drag. It is the push that moves something forward. An aircraft can keep moving forward if it has more thrust than drag. For example, a small airplane gets its thrust from a propeller, while a larger airplane gets it from jet engines.
AERODYNAMICS: AIRCRAFT vs. AUTOMOBILE
- Aircraft – An aircraft must generate enough thrust to overcome drag forces. This is accomplished with a motor-driven propeller or a jet engine.
- The force that keeps an airplane from falling is called lift. It can be generated by an aircraft wing. Its shape is what makes it able to fly. Airplanes’ wings are curved on top and flatter on the bottom to make air flow over the top faster than under the bottom so less air pressure is on top of the wing.
- Lift for kites also comes from a curved shape. Even sailboats use this concept. A boat’s sail is like a wing.
- Automobiles – The principle of automobile aerodynamics is largely applied to cars that pursue speed such as the race cars and those designed for casual speed.
- Automobile engineers reduced wind resistance to increase speed. However, they had to keep the car on ground, so to maintain steering and braking control, cars are designed so the wind exerts a downward force as their speed increases.
- In effect, the increased downward force increases drag, which in turn increases fuel consumption and limits speed. These two forces must be carefully balanced.
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the aerodynamics across 27 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Aerodynamics worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the aerodynamics which is the way air moves around things. The rules of aerodynamics explain how an airplane is able to fly. Anything that moves through air reacts to aerodynamics. A rocket blasting off the launch pad and a kite in the sky react to aerodynamics. Aerodynamics even acts on cars, since air flows around cars.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Paper Plane Project
- Aerodynamic Thrust
- Aerodynamic Drag
- Flying V!
- What Makes a Plane Go Up?
- Aerodynamic Weight
- The Bernoulli Principle
- Newton’s Laws of Motion
- Combining Forces
- Dynamic Wordfind
- Dynamic Word Creator
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Link will appear as Aerodynamics Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, August 18, 2020
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.