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In biology, the cell is the basic structure of organisms. All cells are made by other cells. The environment outside the cell is separated from the inside of the cell by the cell membrane. Inside some cells, parts of the cell stay separate from other parts by plasma membranes.
See the fact file below for more information on Cells, or you can download our 27-page Cells worksheet pack to utilize within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- A cell structure is made up of many components that are found inside cells. These components carry out the various functions required for the cell to function properly.
- Different types of cells exhibit distinct differences, but they all share a basic structural component consisting of three parts: the cell membrane, the nucleus, and the cytoplasm.
- A cell membrane serves as the cell’s boundary. This separates the material outside the cell, known as extracellular material, from the material inside the cell, known as intracellular material.
- It keeps a cell’s integrity and controls the flow of materials into and out of the cell. For the necessary exchange, all materials within a cell must have access to the cell membrane.
- The cell nucleus functions by housing the cell’s genetic information and controlling its growth and reproduction.
- In terms of size and function, it is generally the biggest and most visible cell organelle, and it also serves as the command center of a eukaryotic cell.
- In order for the nucleus to perform important reproductive functions and other cell activities, it requires proteins and ribosomes.
- The gel-like fluid that fills the cell’s interior is called the cytoplasm. All of a cell’s functions for expansion, growth, and replication take place in the cytoplasm. It acts as a medium for chemical reactions and a platform for other organelles within the cell to function.
TYPES OF CELLS – EUKARYOTIC
- Prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells are the two types of cells found on Earth. Prokaryotes are always unicellular, whereas eukaryotic organisms can be multicellular or unicellular.
- Eukaryotic cells are found in all living things that are made up of more than one cell.
- All animals, plants, protists, fungi and even humans are included. Eukaryotic cells could also be found in many microscopic organisms.
- Animal Cells are the fundamental constituents of all animals, which include birds, fish, reptiles, mammals, and amphibians.
- They have membrane-bound organelles such as a nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum and are surrounded by a plasma membrane, just like eukaryotic cells.
- Plant cells are the building blocks of plants. Plant cells include a number of the organelles found in all eukaryotes, but they also contain structures not present in animal cells. For example, animal cells do not have a cell wall, unlike plant cells.
- Fungi cells contain several structures and organelles found in plant and animal cells. They, however, do not engage in photosynthesis. Fungi cells have a cell wall, although it is primarily composed of chitin, a polysaccharide, instead of cellulose.
- Protist cells possess every single membrane-bound organelle found in animal cells, as well as chloroplasts in some types.
TYPES OF CELLS – PROKARYOTIC
- Because they lack membrane – bound organelles, prokaryotic cells are smaller and have a simpler structure than eukaryotic cells.
- Prokaryotic organisms are always single – celled and can be bacteria or archaea. The basic structure of bacterial and archaeal cells is the same, but some of their components are made of different materials.
- Archaea cells are also unicellular prokaryotes that share many of the same structures as bacteria cells. They do, however, usually differ in composition.
- Bacteria cells are prokaryotic, unicellular organisms. Because their cells lack membrane-bound organelles, they have no nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, as well as Golgi apparatus.
FUNCTIONS OF CELLS
- The smallest units that are capable of reproducing themselves are the cells. The workings of the body are explained by the functioning of the cells, and different cells perform various functions.
- Cells play significant roles in the structure and function of living things, including serving as the structural foundation and support for all organisms.
- Human skin, for example, is composed of numerous skin cells, and vascular plants have a special tissue known as xylem, which contains cells that provide structural support.
- Cells also communicate with one another and connect to form a solid, well – connected living creature. Cells form body tissues as skin, muscle, and bone tissue, which then form organs, and organs collaborate to keep the organism alive.
- The body of a living organism is continuously replacing cells. Cells must divide for a variety of reasons, including organism growth and filling gaps left by dead and destroyed cells after an injury, for example.
PLANT, ANIMAL AND HUMAN CELLS
- There are several significant differences in characteristics between a plant, animal, and human cell, including size, functions, structures, and so on.
- Both animals and humans require food. While plants, on the other hand, generate energy through photosynthesis, animals must consume nutrients, which are then converted to energy through a process known as cellular respiration.
- This process also takes place in the human body, particularly in the two organelles known as mitochondria and cytoplasm.
- Plant and human cells are somewhat similar in size, with human cells being about 100 μm in diameter and plant cells being 10 – 100 μm in diameter, which is a larger range than animal cells, which only range from 10 – 30 μm in diameter.
- Given the fact that animal cells are much smaller than plant and human cells, they have a more flexible outer membrane, which allows gasses, molecules, and nutrients to enter.
- The cell membrane in humans allows items to enter and exit the cell. Meanwhile, the larger plant cells have tough cell walls composed of cellulose microfibrils with the toughness of steel.
- Animal cells, unlike human and plant cells, do not have cell walls as organelles, although they have a plasma membrane, similar to the one found in plants.
This is a fantastic bundle that includes everything you need to know about Cells across 27 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use worksheets that are perfect for teaching kids about Cells, the basic structure of organisms.
Complete List of Included Worksheets
Below is a list of all the worksheets included in this document.
- Cells Facts
- The Basic Unit of Life
- Legends of Cell Study
- Cell Division
- Human Cells
- Red and White
- Inside the Animal Cell
- Cell Comparisons
- The Plant Cell
- Cell Damages
- Vocabulary Practice
Frequently Asked Questions
What are cells made of?
There are many types of molecules that can create cells. The most common types are nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
Who discovered the cell?
The cell was discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke, and since then, its rich history has led to countless scientific breakthroughs.
Why is the cell important?
Cells are the foundation for all living organisms, from microbes to humans. Many scientists believe they are the smallest form of life. They contain the biological components that produce proteins, chemicals, and signals responsible for every bodily function.
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Use With Any Curriculum
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