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Glands are organs in our body that produce and secrete hormones. Hormones are chemical substances in the body responsible for regulating the organ and cell activity through metabolism, the chemical and physical processes of the body. The endocrine system is the system of organs in the body that is comprised of glands.
See the fact file below for more information on the glands or alternatively, you can download our 30-page Glands worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
MAJOR GLANDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
- The endocrine system is made up of the major glands of the body.
- The hypothalamus is a small region of the brain.
- The hypothalamus is located near the pituitary gland.
- Even though the hypothalamus is very small, it plays an important role in metabolism.
- The hypothalamus has multiple functions:
- Release hormones
- Regulate body temperature
- Maintain daily physiological cycles
- Control appetite
- Manage sexual behavior
- Regulate emotional responses
- The hypothalamus is divided into three main regions: the Anterior region, the Middle region, and the Posterior region.
- These regions contain their own nuclei.
- Each region is made of a cluster of neurons and performs vital functions.
- ANTERIOR REGION
- The anterior region is also called the supraoptic region.
- The nuclei in the Anterior region release various hormones like:
- Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) — responds to physical and emotional stress.
- Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) — stimulates the pituitary gland to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that helps the heart, gastrointestinal tract, and muscles to function.
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) — signals the pituitary gland to produce reproductive hormones.
- Oxytocin — controls sexual arousal, trust, maternal behavior, and other emotions.
- Vasopressin -— regulates water levels in the body, it signals the kidneys to absorb water.
- MIDDLE REGION
- The middle region is also called the tuberal region.
- The major nuclei of the region are the ventromedial and arcuate nuclei.
- Involved with releasing the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), responsible for the growth of the body.
- POSTERIOR REGION
- The posterior region is also called the mammillary region.
The main nuclei of the region are the posterior hypothalamic nuclei and the mammillary nuclei.
It is responsible for sweat regulation.
- It is sometimes called the master gland.
- It secretes hormones that affect other glands such as the thyroid, reproductive glands, and adrenal gland.
- The pituitary gland is small and oval shaped.
- It is located behind the nose and is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk-like structure.
- The pituitary gland is divided into two parts: the Anterior lobe and the Posterior lobe.
- PITUITARY GLAND PARTS
- The anterior lobe releases several hormones like:
- Growth hormone — responsible for growth and physical development.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone — triggers the thyroid to release hormones.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone — triggers the adrenal gland to release cortisol and other hormones.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone — important for estrogen secretion and egg cell production of women and for sperm production in men.
- Luteinizing hormone — involved in estrogen production for women and testosterone for men.
- Prolactin — produces milk for breastfeeding women.
- Endorphins — cause pain-relief and connected to the “pleasure centers” of the brain.
- Enkephalins — similar to endorphins for its pain-relieving properties.
- Beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone — increases pigmentation of the skin as a response to ultraviolet radiation.
- POSTERIOR LOBE
- Unlike the anterior lobe, the posterior lobe does not produce its own hormones.
- The posterior lobe stores and releases the oxytocin and antidiuretic hormones which are hormones made in the hypothalamus.
- The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates the amount of water in the blood.
- Oxytocin is also called the love hormone because it is secreted when people get intimate and bond socially.
- The thyroid gland is a gland located in the neck.
- This gland releases two important hormones: Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) which are needed for all the cells of the body to work properly.
- The secretion of these hormones into the bloodstream regulate speed of metabolism.
- Hyperthyroidism is a condition where too many thyroid hormones are secreted and cause faster heart rate, increased intestinal activity, or even diarrhea.
- Hypothyroidism is the opposite of hyperthyroidism.
- When there is a deficiency in thyroid hormones, the heart becomes slower and causes constipation.
- The parathyroid glands are glands located in the neck.
- The main function of the parathyroid is to regulate calcium levels in the body.
- Calcium level is crucial for the heart and the nervous system to function properly.
- Adrenals are also called the suprarenal glands.
- These glands produce cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline.
- The adrenal gland is found above the kidneys.
- The hormones produced in the adrenal gland are responsible for metabolism, blood pressure, and response to stress.
- The pineal gland is a small gland located at the deep center of the brain.
- The pineal gland is named for its pine-cone shape.
- The main function of the pineal gland to secrete melatonin, a hormone that regulates the body’s internal clock; therefore, it is responsible for sleep.
- In the 17th century, the Philosopher René Descartes thought that the soul was located in the pineal gland.
- Reproductive glands, also known as gonads, produce sex cells (gametes) and sex hormones.
- These are the ovaries for women and testicles for men.
- The testicles, or testes, in male are located in the scrotum.
- They release androgens, and testosterone, which are responsible for a person’s sexual development, facial and pubic hair, and sperm production.
- The ovaries are located on the sides of the uterus and produce estrogen and progesterone, responsible for female characteristics.
- Egg cells are produced in the ovaries.
- It is located on the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach.
- It produces insulin that regulates sugar levels in the body.
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the glands across 30 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Glands worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the glands which are organs in our body that produce and secrete hormones. Hormones are chemical substances in the body responsible for regulating the organ and cell activity through metabolism, the chemical and physical processes of the body. The endocrine system is the system of organs in the body that is comprised of glands.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Glands Facts
- Locate and Label
- Gland Sketch
- Identify It!
- Also Known As
- Hormone Crossword
- Hypothalamus Functions
- Hormone Match
- Endocrine Word Map
- Doctor, I’m Sick!
- Glands Acrostics
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Link will appear as Glands Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, October 3, 2019
Use With Any Curriculum
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