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The human skeletal system is the framework of the body and is responsible for iron storage, endocrine regulation, blood cell production, organ protection, support and movement. It consists of the axial and appendicular skeleton.
See the fact file below for more information on the human skeletal system or alternatively, you can download our 25-page Skeletal System worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- The human skeleton consists of 80 axial bones, which help the body to maintain its upright posture. It includes the vertebral column, rib cage and the skull.
- The appendicular skeleton is made up of 126 bones, which enable locomotion and protection for major internal organs.
- At birth, the human body contains around 300 bones. Growing up makes some bones fuse through the process of ossification, decreasing the total number of bones to 206.
- The skull consists of 8 cranial bones, 14 facial bones and 3 paired bones in the middle ear with a total of 28 bones.
- There are 52 bones comprising the torso, which includes the hyoid bone below the tongue, the vertebral column of 26 bones, the ribs of 24 bones (12 each side) and the sternum.
- The appendicular skeleton is divided into upper and lower extremities comprising 126 bones. The upper extremities include the scapula (shoulder blades), clavicle (collar bones), humerus, ulna and radius (arm bones), and hand bones (carpal bones).
- The lower extremities include the hip bones forming the pelvis, femur (thigh bones), tibia (shin bone), fibula (calf bone), patella (knee cap), tarsal bones (ankle bones), metatarsal bones, and phalanges.
Types of Bones
- Human bones are divided into different types based on size and shape. Here are the following:
- Long bones are those with greater length and lesser width like the femur, humerus, tibia and fibula.
- Short bones are mostly cube-shaped bones with almost the same length and width, like the carpal and tarsal bones in our hands and feet.
- Flat bones are thin and usually curved. Some bones in the skull, the rib cage and shoulder blades are examples.
- Irregular bones have no definite shape. Most of the time these bones perform complicated functions like the hyoid, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones.
- Those embedded inside a tendon, like the kneecap and pisiform, are examples of sesamoid bones.
- Inside bone is bone marrow, which performs the process of haematopoiesis or development of red blood cells. In adults, it occurs in the vertebra, the sternum, pelvis and cranium, while in children this happens in the femur and tibia.
- More than half of the bones in a human skeleton are located in the hands and feet.
- Human teeth are part of the skeletal system but are not considered bones. Teeth are composed of enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp, which make them different to bones. Tooth enamel is a substance that is considered the hardest part of a human body.
- Like all organs and systems in the human body, bones are susceptible to tumors and cancers because they are made of active, living cells. Some common bone diseases are:
- Osteoporosis – the abnormal loss of bone mass, which makes the bone fragile and prone to fracture.
- Paget disease – affects the spine, pelvis, skull and leg bones making them soft and causing joint pain, headaches and hearing loss.
- Osteosarcoma – the most common bone cancer affecting children and young adults.
- Some health tips to avoid bone diseases include eating calcium-rich foods, doing weight-bearing exercise or activities, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol drinking, and taking additional calcium supplements.
Skeletal System Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Skeletal System across 25 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Skeletal System worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the human skeletal system which is the framework of the body and is responsible for iron storage, endocrine regulation, blood cell production, organ protection, support and movement. It consists of the axial and appendicular skeleton.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Skeletal System Facts
- Human Skeleton
- Functions of Skeletal System
- Types of Joints
- Types of Bones
- Human Skull
- About Human Bones
- Bone Disease
- Bone Science
- Male and Female Bones
- Bone Care
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Link will appear as The Skeletal System Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, May 15, 2018
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.