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The kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra make up the urinary system. It is also known as the urinary tract or the renal system. Its functions are to excrete waste from the body and work with other organs such as the lungs and intestines to regulate chemicals in the body.
See the fact file below for more information on the urinary system or alternatively, you can download our 22-page Urinary System worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
What is the Urinary System?
- The urinary system is the system through which urine is produced, stored, and removed.
- Urine is the liquid waste formed in and excreted from the kidneys.
- Urine contains water, fluids, salts, proteins, hormones, metabolites, and other waste products.
- Urination is the process of expelling urine from the body, particularly from the bladder and through the urethra.
- The urinary system has more than one function in the body.
- It does not only eliminate urine but it also regulates blood pressure, blood composition, and blood pH.
Parts of the Urinary System
- The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, one urethra, two sphincter muscles, and the nerves in the bladder.
- The urinary system works with the kidneys in excreting urine as well as keeping water in balance with other chemicals such as sodium and potassium.
- The kidneys are located below the ribs.
- The primary function of the kidneys is to filter fluid waste from the blood and eliminate it as urine.
- Another function of the kidneys is to keep the acid-base balance within the body.
- The kidneys also form erythropoietin, which is a hormone that helps form red blood cells.
- Each kidney consists of filtering units called nephrons.
- Nephrons filter urea from the blood.
- A nephron consists of a small renal tubule and tiny blood capillaries called glomerulus.
- Urea is formed when protein-filled foods are digested and broken down.
- Urea, when mixed with water and other substances, form urine.
- Urine then passes through the nephrons and the renal veins of the kidney.
- Urine is carried from the kidneys to the bladder through two ureters.
- Ureters are narrow, muscular tubes.
- The walls of a ureter press urine downward by flexing and relaxing.
- Small amounts of urine are carried into the bladder at intervals of 10 to 15 seconds.
- Adults excrete 0.8 to 2 liters of urine a day, depending on food and liquid consumption.
- Adults produce more urine in the day than at night.
- Urine is stored in the bladder.
- The bladder is located below the abdomen.
- When urine is stored, the walls of the bladder expand.
- An adult bladder can typically store up to two cups of urine for two to five hours.
- When urine is emptied, the walls of the bladder contract.
- The walls of the bladder have a coating that prevents bacteria from sticking to it.
- Normal urine is free of bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
- Around the opening of the bladder is where two sphincter muscles can be found.
- The tight closing of the sphincter muscles is what keeps urine from leaking out of the bladder.
- Nerves in the bladder are important because signals are sent to them when it’s time to urinate.
- The urethra is a tube through which urine flows out from the body.
- Signals are sent from the brain to the muscles of the bladder which prompt them to contract and force urine out of the bladder.
- The brain also sends signals to the sphincter muscles to relax which lets urine pass outside the body.
Urinary Tract Diseases
- Diseases occuring in the urinary tract, particularly the bladder, kidneys, and urethra, are treated by urologists.
- At times, urologists work with nephrologists (who treat kidney diseases), endocrinologists (who treat endocrine diseases), and oncologists (who treat tumors) depending on the disease.
- When bacteria enter the urinary system, urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur.
- UTIs can occur in the kidneys, bladder, or urethra.
- UTIs are more common in women than men.
- According to the American Urology Association, approximately 8.1 million people in the United States get infected with UTI each year.
- The typical treatment for UTI is antibiotics.
- Urinary incontinence is another urinary disease, which is the lack of voluntary control when urinating.
- When a person has urinary incontinence, he or she may experience urine leaks, frequent urges to urinate, or incomplete emptying of the bladder (which causes overflow).
- To prevent urinary diseases, one should not hold in urine repeatedly and in prolonged periods of time.
- Treating urinary diseases involves medication, physical therapy, and even surgery.
- Other diseases of the urinary tract are the painful bladder syndrome (interstitial cystitis), prostatitis (swelling of the prostate gland in men), and kidney stones.
- Types of cancer affecting the urinary tract include kidney cancer, bladder cancer, urethral cancer, and ureteral cancer.
Urinary System Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about urinary system across 22 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Urinary System worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra which make up the urinary system. It is also known as the urinary tract or the renal system. Its functions are to excrete waste from the body and work with other organs such as the lungs and intestines to regulate chemicals in the body.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Urinary System Facts
- Tract Sketch
- What’s In It?
- Name That Organ
- The Right Flow
- True or Flush
- Word Search
- Fully Functional
- Doctor, I’m Sick!
- Correct Treatment
- Restroom Posters
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Link will appear as Urinary System Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, January 7, 2019
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.