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See the fact file below for more information on English Civil War or alternatively, you can download our comprehensive worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
- Charles I became king of Great Britain and Ireland on March 27, 1625.
- The king and Parliament had a lot of problems before conflict broke out. Charles I dissolved Parliament for over a decade because he believed in the divine right of kings (a representative of God), so decided to rule without a Parliament.
- Charles I also tried to have some members of Parliament arrested for not following his orders, using soldiers to take them away.
- He taxed his people heavily and introduced unpleasant taxes like ‘ship money’ to pay for the building of new ships for the navy.
- During 1640 and 1641, Charles I also had many arguments with Parliament, who tried to pass new laws to give greater control of government to them and reduce his powers.
- On 4 January, 1642, Charles I then burst into the House of Commons with 400 soldiers to arrest five Members of Parliament he accused of treason. They all escaped but Charles I was now so unpopular that there were riots in London.
The Civil War:
- A few months later, a civil war broke out between the Roundheads (supporters of Parliament and led by Oliver Cromwell) and the Cavaliers (supporters of the king).
- Most of the big cities, including London and the south-east, supported Parliament. Wales, and the north and west of the country were in favour of the king.
- The first major battle took place on 23 October, 1642, at Edgehill, near Birmingham.
- For the next few years, Charles and his ‘Royalists’ won most of their battles.
- They even trapped many ‘Parliamentarians’ inside their own homes until they surrendered, otherwise known as sieges.
- The Roundheads responded by creating a New Model Army of soldiers in 1645. They were well-equipped and wore new red coats, making them the first ever army to wear a standard uniform.
- Their men also often wore lobster pot helmets to help protect their head, neck and face.
- Armies in the civil war had four kinds of soldiers in them:
- The pikemen carried long wooden spears called pikes.
- The musketeers would fire heavy guns called muskets, which were powered by gunpowder.
- The cavalry were mounted on horses and carried swords and two pistols, which could fire one shot each.
- The dragoons were also mounted on horseback and were armed with guns called carbines.
- The fighting continued until 1646 when the king gave himself up to the Scots.
- Fearing the conflict would continue though, Oliver Cromwell decided to put Charles I on trial for treason.
- He was eventually executed on 30 January, 1649, as a ‘Tyrant, traitor, murderer and a public enemy’.
- The war was very bloody, with an estimated 250,000 deaths.
- England was then ruled by Parliament until 1653 when Oliver Cromwell, commander of the Cavaliers, became the Lord Protector of England.
- He held this post until his death in 1658 and his son, Richard Cromwell, briefly took over.
- Shortly afterwards, in 1660 when Richard Cromwell abdicated, the son of King Charles I then became King Charles II.
- This return of a king to the throne was known as The Restoration.
- He worked in cooperation with a nominated Parliament to govern the land and so ruled a much happier, democratic society.
- He was even nicknamed ‘the Merry Monarch’ because he changed many of the laws Cromwell made, which gave people more freedom to enjoy themselves.
English Civil War Worksheets
This bundle includes 11 ready-to-use English Civil War worksheets that are perfect for students to learn about The English Civil War which pitted the armies of King Charles I against the armies of Parliament for control of England.
This download includes the following worksheets:
- English Civil War Facts
- King Charles I
- The War
- New Model Army
- Oliver Cromwell
- Effects of the War
- End of the War
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Link will appear as English Civil War Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, January 18, 2018
Use With Any Curriculum
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