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Table of Contents
Text structure refers to how the information or details in a text are organized to help the reader understand the main idea. There are two common structures: the three-part essay structure and the IMRaD structure. It also consists of specific structures, which are definition/description, narrative, sequence, problem and solution, compare and contrast, and cause and effect. See the fact file below for more information on Writing Styles, or you can download our 25-page Text Analysis worksheet pack to utilize within the classroom or home environment.
DEFINITION OF TEXT STRUCTURE
- Text structure is how the pieces of information in a paragraph or text are organized. Aside from the typical main idea and supporting details as components of a text, text structure helps the reader understand how these elements work together when presenting information.
- Learning about text structure as well as observing it in writing is beneficial because:
- It can aid students’ understanding of what information the text is presenting.
- It can help students monitor their comprehension.
- It can help students determine the structure they will use, and in turn help them observe organization in writing.
- Aside from the organization of the information in the text, the text structure can also be established through the transition signals used.
- For instance, the signal words first, second, third, etc. indicate that there is a sequence being shown in the text. The signals because, for, and since, on the other hand, can indicate cause and effect.
TWO COMMON TEXT STRUCTURES
- There are two common text structures. The first structure is known as the three-part essay structure which consists of introduction, body, and conclusion.
- The introduction introduces the topic that will be dealt with in the essay. This gives the background and context of the writing. It also holds the arguments that will be used to substantiate the point through a thesis statement. This is why the introduction is the first paragraph of an essay.
- The topic will be elaborated more in the main body. This is the part that holds the analysis and the discussion of the topic or issue. The length or the number of paragraphs that the main body has depends on the arguments that will substantiate the point.
- The final part of the essay is the conclusion. This sums up the arguments given in the main body. It may also refer back to the introduction by restating the thesis statement. Before this part finally ends, it may give realizations, recommendations, or suggestions about the topic discussed.
- The second common type is called IMRaD which stands for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. This text structure is typically used for laboratory reports and research papers.
- The introduction gives the background of the study and describes the problem or situation that inspired the research topic as well as the purpose of the research.
- The methods section discusses how the study or research will be or was conducted. Specifically, it discusses the population, sample, methods, and equipment.
- The results section presents the findings of the study or research paper. It contains charts, figures, and/or tables that are numbered and labeled properly to effectively present the results.
- The last section is the discussion where the summary, analysis, and comments on the results of the study are found. It also discusses the limitations of the study which are significant in the construction of the study’s implications and recommendations to key players and future researchers.
SPECIFIC TEXT STRUCTURES
- There are also specific text structures which may still follow common text structures while presenting different kinds of information such as definition or description, cause and effect, compare and contrast, sequence, narrative, and problem-solution. The first specific type is definition or description which defines or describes the topic or object by enumerating its characteristics, features, attributes, and even examples. This structure utilizes descriptive language as well as transition signals like such as, including, to illustrate, for instance, and for example.
Android phones are classified as smartphones, mainly because they can do a lot more than just make calls or send and receive text messages. The Android operating system allows you to install a wide variety of apps, and essentially use your device as a mini-computer.
- In this example, you can see that the paragraph just focuses on defining and describing the object, which is the Android phone. The next type is cause and effect. From the term itself, it shows or even explains the cause of something and the results or effects that come out of that cause. In presenting the information, this text type uses signal words such as if/then, as a result, therefore, because, consequently, and so that.
Using a smartphone for work often means work bleeds into your home and personal life. As a result, you feel the pressure to always be switched on and never out of touch from work. The need to continually check and respond to emails leads to higher stress levels and even burnout.
- In this short paragraph, you see the effects of using a smartphone often. The cause and effect are clearly introduced through the signal words as a result and leads to.
- Another text type is compare and contrast which discusses two or more ideas, events, or phenomena while showing their similarities and differences. The signal words used in this structure are on other hand, however, similarly, although, in contrast/comparison, etc.
iOs and Android are both operating systems. They are both vital in running the apps on a smartphone. However, iOS is the operating system created by Apple which is also exclusive to Apple products such as iPhones and iPads. Android, on the other hand, is developed by Google for mobile systems that can be used by other touchscreen devices such as smartphones and tablets.
- This paragraph talks about the similarities and differences between iOS and smartphones. These features are emphasized through the signal words both, however, and on the other hand.
- The next type is sequence which presents ideas in chronological order. It uses the signal words first, second, third, later, next, before, then, finally, after/later, finally, etc.
To update your iPhone, the first step is to backup your device using iCloud or your computer. Second, connect your device to the internet or WiFi. Then, go to Settings > General and tap Software Update. Next, choose the software that you want to install. Lastly, tap Install.
- This short paragraph shows the step-by-step process to update your iPhone’s iOS. It organizes the steps through the signal words first, second, then, next, and lastly.
- Then there is narrative which narrates an event/story with characters, setting, conflict, point of view, and plot. Aside from using time signals, this structure also utilizes descriptive language.
It was always our plan to buy a new smartphone if I got good grades this semester. This is it! This morning, my mom woke me up and told me to get dressed because we were going to the mall. While walking through the huge mall, I couldn’t help but feel excited. When we entered the slightly fancy shop, I was so ecstatic. Finally, I have a new phone!
- The paragraph is a narration of the character’s experience using his point of view while showcasing other elements of the story.
- Last is problem-solution which identifies problems and proposes solutions. It uses transition signals such as the problem is, if/then, because, so that, and question/answer.
Gazing at screens all day is really exhausting. The problem is, it does not only make your other parts tired but strains your eyes as well. Therefore, you can try to look away at something that is 20 feet away from you for a total of 20 seconds.
- The paragraph reveals the problems that arise from looking at screens for a long time. It also gives a solution to the problem, especially when it is affecting the eyes too much.
Text Structure Worksheets
This fantastic bundle includes everything you need to know about Text Structure across 25 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use worksheets that are perfect for teaching kids about Text Structure, which refers to how the information or details in a text are organized to help the reader understand the main idea.
Complete List of Included Worksheets
Below is a list of all the worksheets included in this document.
- Text Structure Facts
- Match Me
- Is It True?
- What Text?
- Label Me
- Complete Me
- Search for Me
- Text Choice
- What’s Your Signal?
- Text Guide
- I Realized That
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Link will appear as Text Structure Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, June 3, 2016
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.