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The periodic table of elements, simply known as the periodic table, is a two-dimensional chart of the chemical elements. The elements are organized by atomic number, electron configuration, and other periodic patterns based on the elements’ chemical properties.
See the fact file below for more information on the periodic table or alternatively, you can download our 27-page Periodic Table worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- The periodic table is a display of the chemical elements.
- Chemical elements are materials that cannot be broken down through chemical methods.
- As of 2019, there are 118 identified chemical elements.
- 94 of these elements occur naturally. The other 24 were synthesized in laboratories.
- The elements are arranged in columns (called groups), rows (called periods), and specific rectangular areas (called blocks).
- The elements are also arranged according to atomic number, electron configuration, ionization energy, electronegativity, electron affinity, and metallic character.
Brief History of the Periodic Table
- French chemist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier came up with the first list of chemical elements in 1789. It had 33 elements in total.
- In the following century, chemists continued to research and observe relationships of the elements and develop one scheme that unites these relationships.
- In 1829, German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner discovered that the elements can be grouped into triads based on their chemical properties, which became known as the Law of Triads.
- In 1843, German chemist Leopold Gmelin produced a table of 55 elements which is one of the foundations of our modern periodic table.
- In 1857, French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas described relationships between groups of metals in his published work.
- In 1862, French geologist Alexandre-Emile Beguyer de Chancourtois published the “telluric screw” which is a three-dimensional arrangement of the elements.
- In 1864, German chemist Julius Lothar Meyer published a table with 28 elements while English chemist William Odling published a table of 57 elements.
- From 1863 to 1866, English chemist John Newlands wrote a series of papers explaining similar properties of elements recurring at intervals of eight, which became known as the Law of Octaves.
- In 1871, Russian Chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published a new edition of his periodic table with similar elements grouped in columns rather than in rows.
- By the 1930s, the popular version of the periodic table attributed to Horace G. Deming was being circulated in American schools.
- The periodic table we use now is based on Mendeleev’s structure.
Reading An Element
- The parts included in the element’s label depends on the version of the periodic table, but these are the basics:
- Symbol – an abbreviation of the chemical element’s name. It is usually one or two letters.
- Name – the common name of the element. It is found below the symbol.
- Atomic number – the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus. It is found above the symbol.
- Atomic mass – the mass of an atom. It is expressed in atomic mass units. It is found below the name.
- The arrangement of chemical elements can provide insight about the relationships of the elements with each other.
- The organization of elements can also predict the properties of unknown or newly discovered elements.
- There are seven rows (periods), 18 columns (groups), and four blocks in the periodic table.
- Groups are numbered from 1 (leftmost column) to 18 (rightmost column).
- The blocks are labeled the s-block, f-block, d-block, and p-block.
- The elements are also grouped into metals, metalloids, and nonmetals.
- Electron configuration is the distribution of electrons in atomic or molecular orbitals.
- Ionization energy is the energy needed to remove electrons from a neutral atom resulting in a positively charged ion.
- Electronegativity is a measure of the strength of atoms in attracting a shared pair of electrons to themselves.
- Electron affinity is a measure of a neutral atom’s strength of gaining an electron.
- Metallic character is defined by the degree of reactivity of a metal.
- Metals are elements that effectively conduct heat and electricity. Metals easily lose electrons and form positive ions (cations).
- Nonmetals are elements that cannot conduct heat or electricity. Nonmetals are not flexible and lustrous.
- Metalloids are elements that show mixed properties of metals and nonmetals.
- Metalloids are boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te), polonium (Po), and astatine (At).
- Elements in the same period exhibit trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, electronegativity, and electron affinity.
- Atomic radius increases from right to left.
- Ionization energy increases from left to right.
- Electronegativity increases left to right.
- Electron affinity increases from left to right.
- Elements in the same group show a trend in properties, such as electronegativity and ionization energy, with increasing atomic number:
- Atomic radius decreases from top to bottom.
- Ionization energy increases from bottom to top.
- Electronegativity increases from bottom to top.
- Blocks are grouped according to the sequence in which the electron shells of the elements are filled.
- Generally, metals are on the left and nonmetals on the right.
Periodic Table Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about periodic table across 27 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Periodic Table worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the periodic table of elements, simply known as the periodic table, which is a two-dimensional chart of the chemical elements. The elements are organized by atomic number, electron configuration, and other periodic patterns based on the elements’ chemical properties.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Periodic Table Facts
- Who And When
- Vocabulary Test
- True Or False
- Chemical Properties
- Reading Elements
- Correct Arrangement
- Metals Or Nonmetals
- Fill In The Table
- Decode The Element
- Using The Periodic Table
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Link will appear as Periodic Table Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, March 4, 2019
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.