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The human respiratory system is made up of parts and organs responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. It includes the nose, mouth, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs, diaphragm and muscles that enable breathing.
See the fact file below for more information on the Respiratory System or alternatively, you can download our 25-page Respiratory System worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
Parts and Functions
- The air first passes through the nose or mouth and into the nasal passage, commonly known as the wide pipe, which filters, moistens and regulates the temperature of the air we breathe.
- The walls of our nose are lined with tiny hair and mucus, which filter foreign particles out of the inhaled air.
- The trachea, or wide pipe, is covered by the epiglottis, a thin layer of tissue that prevents food and liquids from entering either the larynx or pharynx.
- The trachea is divided into two main tubes called bronchi, which subdivided into bronchioles responsible for carrying air from the trachea to the lungs.
- Each lobe of the lungs is surrounded by membranes called pleura, which separate the lungs from the chest wall.
- Human lungs are made up of connected tubules, which transport oxygen to trillions of cells in our body. Our lungs have five lobes, three lobes in the right lung and two in the left. They are supported and protected by the ribs.
- The left lung is smaller to allow space for the heart. Lobes in both lungs are filled with small spongy sacs called alveoli. This is where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place through diffusion.
- Alveolar walls are composed of single-layer tissue called epithelial cells and pulmonary capillaries. Pulmonary venules carry oxygenated blood towards the heart while pulmonary arterioles carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.
- This explains how, with every breath we take, the blood is loaded with oxygen and, when we exhale, waste products like carbon dioxide are expelled.
- At the bottom of the lungs is a dome-shaped muscle called the diaphragm. It controls breathing and separates the chest and abdominal cavities. Our diaphragm facilitates the rising and falling of the chest during respiration.
- During inspiration (inhaling), lung volume increases as the rib cage expands while the diaphragm contracts and moves down.
- When exhaling (expiration), lung volume decreases as the rib cage retracts, while the diaphragm relaxes and moves up.
- In order to achieve pulmonary ventilation, the respiratory system needs to use a negative pressure system and contraction of muscles at the same time.
Common Respiratory Diseases and Treatments
- Like all other systems in our body, respiratory is vulnerable to conditions and diseases. It can be viruses like influenza, bacterial pneumonia and chronic diseases, such as asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- Smoking can cause diseases and disorders like oral cavity cancer, larynx cancer, esophagus cancer, lung cancer, heart attack and emphysema.
- Pulmonologists are the experts diagnosing and treating respiratory ailments. They usually use chest x-rays and pulmonary function tests for diagnosis. In addition, they can also detect viral infection through nasal swab testing.
- Asthma is a respiratory condition wherein a person may experience difficulty in breathing due to narrow and constricted air tubes caused by inflammation.
- The common cold can be caused by over 200 viruses.
- Pneumonia is caused by bacterial or viral infection of the alveoli wherein tissue fluids are accumulated in the alveoli reducing the area exposed to air. Patients may need supplemental oxygen.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is a group of progressive lung diseases which can cause patients greater difficulty in breathing. Moreover, a patient may also experience wheezing, mild but recurrent cough, fatigue, weight loss and tightness in the chest. There is no absolute cure for COPD but treatments can ease symptoms and decrease the chance of complications. Treatments include oxygen therapy, surgery, antivirals and change of lifestyle.
- Lung airways, when laid, out can cover 1,500 miles.
- There are 300 to 600 alveoli in a lung.
- An average person inhales and exhales air 23,040 times a day. About 300 cubic feet of air is transported by the lungs. While our normal breathing rate is 16 times per minute, during heavy exercise, a person may take 45 breaths per minute.
- In 1983 and 1986, Thoracic surgeon Joel D. Cooper performed the first successful single and double-lung transplant.
- Sneezing is a protective reflex mechanism of our body against irritants like dust, pollen, pepper and animal fur.
- Our tonsils are lymph nodes located in the wall of the pharynx, and can be considered to be less important compared to other parts of our respiratory system. Some people with frequent tonsil infections have them removed through surgery.
Respiratory System Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Respiratory System across 25 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Respiratory System worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the human respiratory system is made up of parts and organs responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. It includes the nose, mouth, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs, diaphragm and muscles that enable breathing.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Respiratory System Facts
- Parts of the Respiratory System
- Parts and Functions
- Gas Exchange
- Structure of the Lungs
- Famous People
- Respiratory Infections
- Keep it Healthy
- About Respiratory
- On Top of the Mountain
- My Record
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Link will appear as Respiratory System Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, June 14, 2018
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.