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The Arapaho (Hocak Pajoke) tribe were once farming people who lived in the location of the Red River Valley of northern Minnesota. Early in the 1800s, they migrated to the Great Plains and completely changed their lifestyle by adopting a nomadic existence of the buffalo hunters.
Below are some interesting facts and further information on the Arapaho tribe or alternatively you can download our comprehensive worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
- During the migration to the Great Plains, the tribe split into two divisions.
- The northern Arapaho were called the Nank’haanseine’nan, meaning the “Sagebrush People”.
- The southern Arapaho were called the Noowunenno, simply meaning the “Southern People”.
- Men were in charge of hunting for food and protecting the camp, and the women were in charge of the home and children.
- They lived in tepees (also spelled teepees or tipis), which are tent-like American Indian houses.
- A tepee is constructed from wooden poles and animal skins such as buffalo hides, and designed to be quickly set and dismantled.
- The famous Arapaho leaders were Black Bear, Plenty Bear, Sorrell Horse, Little Raven and Left Hand.
- They had moccasins for footwear.
- Moccasins were made of soft leather or deerskin and sewn together with deer sinew.
- Moccasins were a soft slip-on shoe, or slipper.
- They also wore beaded, feathered war bonnets.
- The war bonnet, with its long trail of feathers was a symbol of honor and accomplishment among Plains tribes such as the Arapaho, Sioux, Crow, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, and Plains Cree.
- War bonnets consisted of a cap or band decorated with eagle feathers, ermine fur and beadwork.
- There are 3 types of feathered war bonnets: A trailing bonnet with feathers trailing to the floor, a straight-up feather headdress and a halo war bonnet in which the feathers fanned out around the face and shoulders.
- Hair of both men and women was kept long and braided and on special occasions braids were decorated with feathers.
- Sometimes women painted their hair a red color.
- Men wore bright face paint in times of war and also for religious ceremonies.
- Their weapons included bows and arrows, spears and knives. They also used shields made of buffalo hide.
- Enemies of the Arapaho tribe were the Shoshone, Kiowa and Pawnee.
- Before horses were introduced by the Europeans, the Arapaho used dogs to pull sleds.
- Their tribal territories are Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska and Oklahoma.
- The Arapaho spoke in the Algonquian language.
- The Arapaho’s food was buffalo, deer, elk, bear and wild turkey.
- They also ate wild berries, fruits, roots, herbs and wild vegetables such as spinach, prairie turnips and potatoes.
- Weapons used by the Arapahos included bows and arrows, stone ball clubs, jaw bone clubs, hatchet axe, spears, lances and knives.
- Painted war shields were used on horseback as a means of defense.
- Women of the Arapaho tribe were responsible for making the clothes worn by the people.
- Most garments were sewn from soft, tanned skins of deer (buckskin) and buffalo.
- Clothing was often decorated with paint, porcupine quills or beadwork.
- Arapaho clothing for both men and women were adorned with ornaments, especially necklaces and armbands.
- Warm buffalo robes or cloaks were also worn to protect against the rain and the cold.
- Arapaho women wore knee-length dresses and leggings.
- The women also wore buffalo robes to keep warm and dry.
- The dresses of the Arapaho women that were used for special ceremonies were decorated with beads.
- Dresses were also painted with symbols that reflected their tribal identity and family values.
- The religion and beliefs of the Arapaho tribe was based on Animism.
- They believe that the universe and all natural objects, animals, plants, trees, rivers, mountains, rocks etc. have souls or spirits.
- They believed in Manitou, the Great Spirit.
- The rituals of the Arapaho tribe included the smudging rituals, the Sweat Lodge ceremony, the Vision Quest and the Sun Dance Ceremony.
- The sacred, ceremonial pipe (called a Calumet), was ritually filled with tobacco was passed among participants at all sacred ceremonies of the Arapaho.
- The Calumet was often used to seal a peace treaty, hence the term ‘Peace Pipe’, but it was also used to offer prayers in religious ceremonies and in war councils.
Arapaho Tribe Worksheets
This bundle contains 11 ready-to-use Arapaho Tribe Worksheets that are perfect for students who want to learn more about the Arapaho (Hocak Pajoke) tribe which were once farming people who lived in the location of the Red River Valley of northern Minnesota.
Download includes the following worksheets:
- Arapaho Facts
- Tribe Divisions
- The Tepees
- Arapaho Leaders
- War Bonnets
- Arapaho Food
- Religion and Beliefs
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Link will appear as Arapaho Tribe Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, October 23, 2017
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.