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The Gulf War (1990-1991), also known as the Persian Gulf War, was prompted by the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq as ordered by Saddam Hussein. For more information on the Gulf War read the fact file below or download the comprehensive worksheet pack containing over 11 worksheets.
- Iraq invaded and occupied Kuwait on August 2, 1990 as ordered by its leader, Saddam Hussein.
- Saddam Hussein’s objective was the acquisition of Kuwait’s oil reserves. He accused Kuwait of tapping crude oil from the Ar-Rumaylah oil fields, which are located along their common border. Hussein also insisted that Kuwait and Saudi Arabia were conspiring in keeping their oil price low to attract more buyers from Western nations.
- The United Nations Security Council called for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait by August 3, but they did not respond. By August 6, the Council imposed a worldwide trading ban with Iraq.
- By August 8, the government of Iraq annexed Kuwait.
- Egyptian president, Hosni Mubarak, initiated negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait to avoid intervention by Western countries, such as the United States, or other powers from outside the region.
- About 21 members of the Arab League condemned the action of Iraq. Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd, along with Kuwait, sought the assistance of the United States and other members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
- Several Arab nations contributed forces to the military buildup against Iraq, known as Operation Desert Shield.
- By November 29, the UN Security Council enforced the use of military force towards Iraq if it would not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15, 1991.The allied nations had reached about 700,000 forces, including 540,000 U.S. personnel as well as smaller numbers of British, French, Egyptians, Saudis, Syrians, and other national legations.
- Saddam Hussein refused to withdraw Iraqi forces from Kuwait and stated that it would remain a province of Iraq.
- Military offense against Iraq began on January 16-17, 1991. The U.S led the aerial bombardment throughout the war, which was named Operation Desert Storm.
- The aerial campaign used the latest military technology which included Stealth bombers, Cruise missiles, “Smart” bombs with laser-guidance systems and infrared night-bombing equipment.
- The aerial campaign destroyed Iraq’s air defenses before attacking its communications networks, bridges, roads, government infrastructures, armaments plants, and oil refineries.
- The allied troops shifted their aerial attacks to Iraq’s forward ground forces in Kuwait and southern Iraq, which destroyed their fortifications and tanks by mid-February.
- On February 24, Operation Desert Sabre was launched. The operation was a massive allied ground offensive launched northward from northeastern Saudi Arabia into Kuwait and southern Iraq.
- By February 27, Arab and U.S. forces had retaken Kuwait City in the face of weakening Iraqi forces.
- 120 miles (200 km) west of Kuwait, the U.S. attacked Iraq’s armored reserves by attacking them from the rear. It had destroyed most of Iraq’s elite Republican Guard units after Iraqi forces had tried to make a stand south of Al-Baṣrah in southeastern Iraq.
- By February 28, U.S. President George Bush had declared a cease-fire, ending the Persian Gulf War.
- As estimated, 8,000 to 10,000 Iraqi forces were killed, in contrast with 300 allied troops.
- Hussein signed a peace term which would recognize the sovereignty of Kuwait and the removal of the country’s weapons of mass destruction, such as nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, as well as missiles with ranges exceeding 90 miles (150 km).
- In the aftermath of the war, Kurds in the north of Iraq and Shi’ites in the south led an uprising, which was brutally suppressed by Hussein’s forces.
- U.S. and British aircraft continued to patrol skies and mandate a “no-fly” zone over Iraq in the years that followed. UN inspectors sought to guarantee that all illegal weapons were destroyed. Iraq failed to cooperate with United Nations weapons inspectors, which led to a brief resumption of aggressions (Operation Desert Fox).
- Iraq subsequently refused to readmit inspectors into their country. Regular exchanges of fire between Iraqi forces and U.S. and British aircraft over the “no-fly” zone were constant until the 21st century.
- In 2002, led by President George W. Bush (son of the former president), the United States sponsored a new UN resolution calling for the return of weapons inspectors to Iraq. The inspectors re-entered Iraq in November. However, member states of the UN Security Council had differences in their opinion of the degree to which Iraq had complied with inspections.
- On March 17, 2003, the United States and Britain began to amass troops on Iraq’s border. Without seeking UN endorsement, U.S. President George W. Bush issued an ultimatum demanding that Saddam Hussein step down from power and leave Iraq within 48 hours or face war. Bush further proposed that if Saddam Hussein leave Iraq, U.S. forces might still be essential to stabilize the region and to further search for weapons of mass destruction.
- Saddam Hussein refused to leave, which triggered the second Persian Gulf War. The U.S., together with allied forces, launched an attack on Iraq on March 20 and this marked the beginning of the Iraq War.
The Gulf War Worksheets
This bundle contains 11 ready-to-use Gulf War Worksheets that are perfect for students who want to learn more about The Gulf War (1990-1991), also known as the Persian Gulf War, which was prompted by the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq as ordered by Saddam Hussein.
Download includes the following worksheets:
- Gulf War Facts
- Gulf War Word Search
- Fact or Bluff
- Location of the War
- Countries Involved
- Point of View
- Historical Ladder
- Who am I?
- Headline Analysis
- Aftermath of the War
- I Therefore Conclude…
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Use With Any Curriculum
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