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Named after the Chinese calendar in which it occurred, the Xinhai revolution was a spontaneous uprising that erupted across China. It took place in late 1911 when a group of revolutionaries led a successful rebellion aimed at overthrowing the Qing dynasty. It is widely regarded as the birth of modern China.
See the fact file below for more information on the Xinhai revolution or alternatively, you can download our 21-page Xinhai Revolution worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- The 1911 revolution stemmed from the desire of national revolutionaries, led by Sun Yixian, to establish a Chinese republican government. To do so, they needed to overthrow the Qing dynasty that held power at the time.
- Sun Yixian eventually reached a compromise with Yuan Shikai, an influential military leader. This negotiation placed Shikai in power after his intervention forced two-year-old emperor Puyi to surrender his power. Contrastingly, Shikai had his own vested interests other than pushing for a Chinese republic.
- However, the decline of the Qing dynasty followed a decade after the failure of the Boxer Rebellion.
- In September 1901, the Boxer Protocol was approved by Qing foreign minister Li Hongzhang. This protocol received backlash from the international community as it failed to protect foreigners in China by supporting the Boxer movement.
- The protocol likewise partially weakened the Qing regime, but it still held power at the time.
- In 1902, Dowager Empress Cixi and her nephew, an incapable Guangxu emperor, came back to Beijing.
- In her final years, the more compliant Cixi ratified some radical political reforms such as the Hundred Days reforms in 1898 that she thought would continue their dynasty.
- In 1905, Cixi approved a commission intended to bring constitutional reform to China. It abolished the examination system that limited political power to the ruling families or the elites.
- Empress Cixi died in her sleep on November 15, 1908. Following this, the old Guangxu emperor died from poisoning. The imperial power was then passed to the infant emperor Puyi, who was then be replaced by self-serving Yuan Shikai.
- Following the collapse of the Qing dynasty came the protests led by Sun Yixian. He also established the Revive China Society and Tongmenghui which aimed to create a new government.
- In 1907, at least five uprisings took place across China against the Qing regime, such as those in Huanggang (May), Huizhou (June), Anqing (July), Qinzhou (September), and Zhennanguan (December). However, these attempts eventually failed as they lacked support from the Chinese themselves.
- The catalyst for the anti-Qing rebellion happened when the government decided to nationalize two railways in central China owned by private businessmen to compensate for the damage caused by the Boxer Protocol.
- This decision, made in May 1911, led to uprisings in Sichuan province where local businessmen and investors created the Railway Protection Movement. They began organizing strikes and protests in Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan.
- In early September, the Qing government attempted to pacify the revolutionary movements, which worsened the situation after sending military troops that killed at least 40 protestors.
- In neighboring Hubei province, the Qing government established military forces to prevent further rebellions, not knowing that these units had already been working with the republicans. This coalition of over 2,000 members who studied subversive political literature started to plot a rebellion against the Qing dynasty and began collecting weapons in early 1911.
- Soon after this came the successful revolutions in Wuchang province.
- On October 11, 1911, the rebels declared a republican government in Hubei and raised a flag depicting 18 connected stars that represented the unification of 18 Chinese provinces.
- The weeks after the Wuchang incident saw simultaneous uprisings around China. There were at least 22 rebellions from Changsha to Jiangsu, and from Shanghai to Shandong.
- In November 1911, Sun Yixian, who had been living in Hawaii, went back to China.
- After the uprisings, China had a choice of two republican presidents in Sun Yixian and Yuan Shikai: one nationalist and one self-serving military leader, which then shaped the early Chinese republic.
- However, the 1911 revolution was only the first step in the process that would require the 1949 revolution to be completed to truly unify China.
Xinhai Revolution Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Xinhai Revolution across 21 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Xinhai Revolution worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Xinhai revolution which was a spontaneous uprising that erupted across China. It took place in late 1911 when a group of revolutionaries led a successful rebellion aimed at overthrowing the Qing dynasty. It is widely regarded as the birth of modern China.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Xinhai Revolution Facts
- Locating China
- Find the Words
- The Uprisings: Complete the Information
- Xinhai Revolution Timeline
- Notable People
- The Chinese Revolution
- The Xinhai Revolution as a Symbol
- Xinhai Revolution Legacy
- Xinhai Revolution: Core Concepts
- In a Nutshell
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Link will appear as Xinhai Revolution Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, April 3, 2020
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.