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Mountains are an elevated portion of the Earth’s crust rising abruptly from the surrounding level; a large steep hill.
See the fact file below for more information on Mountains, or you can download our 28-page Mountains worksheet pack to utilize within the classroom or home environment.
Key Facts & Information
- A mountain is a natural elevation on the Earth’s crust with steep sides and exposed bedrock that rises at least 300 meters (1,000 feet) above the surrounding land.
- In general, a mountain is a landform with significant prominence or distinction from the surrounding land, typically in the form of a peak.
- Mountains are thought to be steeper, taller, and more visible than hills. Mountains can rise alone, but they usually form as part of a chain of mountains known as a mountain range.
- Although definitions differ, a mountain differs from a plateau in that it has a smaller summit area and is typically higher than a hill.
- Mountains are generally acknowledged to be larger than hills, but there is no standardized geological definition for the term.
- Several folklores have been told about how some of the mountains formed, including that when the earth was young, it had neither hill nor valley, but was without any contour.
- The Thunders then strode forth across the land, leaving mountains and valleys where they stepped, and great indentations where they struck the land with the Thunderbird Warclub.
- Because of the origins of the earth’s crust and the various effects of corrosive forces, different parts of the earth’s surface have different heights called landforms, which include mountains.
- A movement within the Earth’s crust, resulted in the formation of a mountain. The crust is made up of several large free-floating plates known as tectonic plates.
- These massive chunks of Earth’s crust move within molten rock known as magma, allowing them to shift and collide over time.
- Furthermore, mountains can also be formed by volcanoes that erupt and form mountains along plate boundaries as tectonic plates shift.
- Different processes interact to form mountains, a process known as orogenesis, where “oro” means “mountain” and “genesis” means “creation.”
- The combination of these two words resulted in the term “orogenesis,” which refers to the process of mountain formation. Mountains are classified into four types based on their origin and structure, such as fold mountains, block mountains, volcanic mountains, and relic mountains.
KINDS OF MOUNTAINS
- Fold mountains form when two or more of the Earth’s tectonic plates collide. Rocks and debris are completely distorted and folded into rocky outcrops, hills, mountains, and entire mountain ranges at these colliding, compressing boundaries.
- Fold mountains are typically composed of sedimentary rocks, but they can also contain igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- Block mountains, also known as fault block mountains, are the result of rifting caused by tensile and compressive forces from within the earth. The tops of the block mountains are flat, and the slopes are steep.
- Through surface cracks, hot molten rock or magma escapes from the earth’s crust. When magma cools and hardens, it condenses into a dome-shaped or cone-shaped mountain, known as a volcanic mountain. A crater is a hole at the summit of a volcano wherein it is linked to a magma chamber underground.
- Relic mountains are made from ancient rocks, and natural forces such as rainfall, rivers, winds, glaciers, and so on are constantly eroding the earth’s surface.
- Solid rocks, on the other hand, prevent corrosion, and as a result, the soft rocky part sinks while the hard rocky part rises and takes on the shape of a mountain. Because of erosion, these mountains are flattened at the top and have a low height.
- The mountain ecosystem is made up of breathtaking landscapes, lush green views, and breathtaking scenery. It also functions as a complex habitat for living organisms.
- Despite adverse climate conditions, the mountain ecosystem supports a diverse range of plant and animal species.
- Mountain ecosystems are influenced by complex temperature-moisture conditions in the lower troposphere, making them particularly sensitive to hydroclimatic change and variability.
- The ecosystems of mountains offer basic environmental services, including energy, biodiversity, water, and soil, but they are also critical for the development of populations and ecosystems found at lower altitudes.
- In high mountain ecosystems, the fauna tends to vary much less than the flora. In general, animals on the top of a mountain look like those in its surroundings.
- This phenomenon is thought to occur as a result of animal retreat following human invasion of their natural habitats.
- Furthermore, mountains are important sites of traditional ecological knowledge as well as key centers of biological and cultural diversity, and they influence the climate on many scales. In other words, they provide a variety of ecosystem services all over the world.
MOST FAMOUS MOUNTAINS
- Mount Everest is a mountain peak in the Himalaya range and it is the tallest point on Earth, standing at 8,849 meters, or 29,032 feet. It is situated between Nepal and Tibet, a Chinese autonomous region.
- Mount Kilimanjaro is a snow-capped volcano, located in Tanzania. It is Africa’s tallest mountain at about 5,895 meters, or 19,340 feet.
- Mount Kilimanjaro is regarded as the largest free – standing mountain in the world, which means it is not part of a mountain range.
- Mount Fuji, also known as Fujisan, is Japan‘s highest mountain, standing at 3776 meters (12,388 feet). It is famous for its nearly perfect cone-shaped volcano and is revered as a sacred mountain by the locals.
- Mount Olympus is the tallest mountain in modern Greece, standing at 5,210 feet (1,588 m). It is situated in the same-named mountain range that runs along the border between the Greek region of Thessaly and the country of Macedonia.
- Mont Blanc, French for “white mountain,” is the highest peak in the Alps and Western Europe, rising 4,808.7 meters (15,777 feet) above sea level.
- Mont Blanc is the world’s second most famous mountain, after Mount Elbrus, and the eleventh most notable mountain peak.
- Mountains are generally less desirable for human habitation than lowlands due to harsh weather and a lack of level agricultural land.
- While 7% of the Earth’s land area is above 2,500 meters (8,200 ft), only 140 million people live above that altitude, with only 20 to 30 million living above 3,000 meters (9,800 ft).
- Mountains cover 24 percent of the land surface on Earth.
- They are home to 12% of the world’s population, and another 14% of the population lives in their immediate vicinity. They provide essential goods and services, particularly freshwater, to a sizable portion of humanity.
- Mountains have served as models for human history. Many other borders in each region are formed by mountains. Mountains hampered travel and trade, as well as invasions, and influenced the shape and size of many countries, as well as the spread of many languages.
EFFECTS OF MODERNIZATION
- The countless number of mobile tower installations is wreaking havoc on the environment, as are the increasing number of vehicles and the excessive number of trees being cut down for building infrastructure, as well as the flattening of mountains to expand cities, as examples of modernization effects on the mountains.
- Human activities such as deforestation and mining for urbanization also cause an imbalance not only in the environment but also in the mountains.
- In order to bring the ecosystem back into balance, proper industrial management and deforestation control should be practiced.
EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
- In today’s world, almost every country in the world has been influenced by industrialization and technological innovation. Although industrialization has resulted in economic growth and development, it has also had a number of negative effects on the mountains.
- Industrialization causes a rise in demand for natural resources as raw materials. Manufacturing’s rapid expansion leads to exploitative behavior, the depletion of natural resources, and the destruction of environmental sustainability.
- Humans should practice the use of sustainable development. The primary goal is to preserve natural resources while maintaining consistent economic growth.
- By doing so, humans can discover the significance and value of the mountains, as well as the benefits they provide, potentially preventing the mountains from being destroyed.
This is a fantastic bundle that includes everything you need to know about Mountains across 28 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use worksheets that are perfect for teaching kids about Mountains, an elevated portion of the Earth’s crust rising abruptly from the surrounding level.
Complete List of Included Worksheets
Below is a list of all the worksheets included in this document.
- Mountains Facts
- Kinds of Mountains
- The Seven Summits
- Tallest Mountains
- Mountain Residents
- Peak Mythology
- Song of the Mountain
- The Greatest Mountaineers
- Highland Activities
- Mountainous Risks
- A Mountain of Responsibility
Frequently Asked Questions
What is so special about mountains?
Mountain ranges supply water for more than half of the world’s population. They are also home to some of the most beautiful scenery and a variety of habitats.
How fast do mountains grow?
Mountains grow at a fair speed (a few mm/year) until the activity that formed them has ceased. Even as they are growing, though, processes such as erosion take their toll. Erosion can be in the form of wind-blown sand abrasions, ice scouring from glaciers, or water currents in streams.
How do mountains form?
When two continental plates collide, mountains form. If both plates have a similar weight and thickness, they’ll neither sink under the other nor crumple and fold. The rocks will be forced upwards to create a mountain range. With each plate collision, the mountains will grow taller.
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Link will appear as Mountains Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com - KidsKonnect, September 16, 2022
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.